Easy Ways to Start and Maintain a Conversation
But conversation, choose what theme we may, And chiefly when religion leads the way, Should flow, like waters after summer show'rs, Not as if raised by mere mechanic powers. Conversation. W. COWPER. Words learned by rote a parrot may rehearse, But talking is not always to converse, Not more distinct from harmony divine The constant creaking of a country sign. Conversation. W. COWPER. And, when you stick on conversation's burrs, Don't strew your pathway with those dreadful urs. Urania. O.W. HOLMES.
Whereas each of us may be said to speak a recognizable dialect of English, he also has at his command, then, a range of registers, or usages, amongst which he can move, as speaker or writer, without difficulty, and indeed, often unconsciously. We rarely notice, for instance, how our manner of speech is transformed when we turn from conversation with a close friend or member of our family to talk to a stranger. In addition, we have a passive familiarity with a further range of registers (e.g. of advertising, of
Venting Language poetry, he sustains its aesthetic and political cantankerousness. He revels in its popular failure as a sign of its disruption of the status quo. He views Language poetry as an intimate conversation about the process of generating meaning rather than as a particular style (qtd. in Wood 3) driven by generational and marketing products (4). Continuing this conversation with other poet-scholars like himself, such as Steve McCaffrey, he participates in creating a poetry of and for the present that opposes the commercialization and simplification of poetry and culture in late 20th-century America (3).
Moore spent many hours in such places as the American Museum of Natural History and the Bronx Zoo observing and gathering the factual detail that fills her poems. But these facts are taken in a Moore poem into an unfolding series of shifting and enriching contexts, and are thus the starting point of connections explored with a rigor both logical and imaginative. Poetry presents imaginary gardens with real toads in them, as she put it in one of the excised lines in Poetry. In another part of the poem also relegated to the notes in later publication, she characterizes poets as literalists of the imagination. This phrase is itself, as Moore's note to the line points out, a paraphrase of Yeats commenting upon Blake, and gives an example of the way quotation adds to the levels and to the play of wit in Moore's poems. But quotation is not only for providing literary context in Moore's work it is more often a mode of inclusion, albeit qualified by being set off in quotation marks. Sometimes...
Indeed, the confrontation of human mortality is a major area in which thinking about the common place occurs in Creeley's later work. Various poems written after his mother's death grope, in retrospect, toward a sense that the mother and son shared a deep bond that their reticent, imperfect communication could not destroy. At the beginning of Histoire de Florida (1998), the speaker invites his brother face that remains behind the mirror to make use of whatever is left of life to come out to play. The poem's play involves juxtapositions of passages about death and dying gleaned from the poet's memories of conversations, television narratives, details of Florida history, famous quotations, and news stories alongside images and gestures marking the continuation of life, the practice of survival through simple routine and ordinary perception.
These languages are frequently used in on-line environments that allow real people or created characters to interact. Electronic environments are also conducive to collaboration and enhance the interactive quality of poetry Chat rooms allow written conversations in real time online. MOOs (Multiple User Dungeons Objected Oriented), which are similar to early computer game environments called MUDs, or multiuser dungeons, based on the game Dungeons and Dragons, allow characters with various sorts of attributes to interact through typed commands. MOOs have been used as on-line classrooms. Bulletin boards, where messages are posted and read, and listservs, where e-mails sent to an address are forwarded to each member of a group, allow electronic communication over time. MOOs, MUDs, chat, and listserv environments allow cyberpoets Miekel And, Alan Sondheim, and others to manipulate the ways that a poet, narrator, speaker, or character may write or be written in a poem and the time reading...
Ard Barnfield (1595) Fidelity in love on the part of the Daphnis in Sonnet 19 elevates what is physical desire to the love of a divine being, a reference to Sonnet 9. Beginning with what seems to be an abbreviated conversation Ah no and nor I my selfe (l. 1) the speaker bespeaks his fidelity in pure love (l. 1) to last until his death, perhaps wishing that this depth of love would move Ganymede. Quickly, however, Daphnis notes that Ganymede's divine status should not make him oblivious to the possibility of love. Even in a divine heart, loves fire (l. 7) can be felt. Enumerating the reasons for his love, the speaker celebrates beauty and the loss of his soul to Ganymede.
Man remains a poet's poet, although much of his work, while thorny, is not beyond the intelligent reader. Influences on him include William Butler Yeats and Rainer Maria Rilke, their solemnity later tempered by Jules Laforgue and Tristan Corbiere ( Conversation ). But Feldman has remained his own poet. The very idea of a school of poetry is repugnant to him, he explains, and as the diversity of his work shows, he finds it difficult even to join himself ( Conversation ). His earlier work is delicately lyrical, as exemplified by the metaphysical poem X (1972), but the later work has a rugged thoughtfulness. Feldman can write about anything a quarrel, baseball, smoking cigarettes, Nazi atrocities. All of his work, as he puts it in Teach Me, Dear Sister (1983) is required, requested, rich in society, in obligations. The poet stands apart to observe, but is still bound uncomfortably, fretfully by myriad ties to the rest of life. and shouts at him 'You idiot do you know how to do anything...
King Cais having despatched some of his slaves to obtain tidings of Antar, one of them returned with a glowing account of a wonderful colt, called Dahis, which he had seen in the course of his journey. In beauty and in speed this colt had no equal in all Arabia. The King bargained for Dahis with the owner, and was delighted when he came to terms for his purchase. Soon after this Carwash, a cousin of King Cais, was present at a grand feast given by Hadifah and the conversation turning upon horses, Carwash boasted of the racing qualities of Dahis. Hadifah
Scope We continue our investigation of poets thinking by looking at two similar poems in a new mode. Long ago, the critic M. H. Abrams defined the greater Romantic lyric as one that begins in a specific time and place, then proceeds outward through a series of philosophical and meditative maneuvers, and finally ends back in the here-and-now, where it began. Coleridge invented the term conversation poem for this mode and, in Frost at Midnight, he perfected it. Wordsworth, who learned a great deal from his friend, composed perhaps the most famous example of this kind of poem in what we call, simply, Tintern Abbey, but whose real (and less thrilling title) is Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye During a Tour. July 13, 1789. We shall examine these two poems to see how they work, and to show how two very similar poets can achieve startlingly different effects in their work.
Existential backdrop to the turmoil of the 1960s (108). But he hoped to do so without engaging in the heroic quest-romance common to epic poetry and without recourse to the didacticism of works produced by such poets as Ezra pound. This unusual approach to the function of poetry arises from oppen's desire to be part of a sincere and public conversation concerning humanity (82), a desire for which he is greatly admired by contemporary poets across the political and aesthetic spectrum.
Compare Among School Children with Lines ( Tintern Abbey ) by Wordsworth (Lecture Eighteen) as examples of greater Romantic lyric or conversation poem (to use Coleridge's phrase). Find the similarities and the differences (the lecture gives one major difference, but there are others) in message, structure, language.
With few books beside him when he was writing these cantos, memory became a key resource for Pound in the poem. The eleven cantos build up in a mosaic-like form the story of the poet's writing career boyhood memories, memories of his arrival in Venice in 1908, his London years, quotations from the now dead Yeats and Ford Madox Ford and others, Paris where he knew Joyce and Hemingway, and then his 20 years in Italy. These personal memories all mingle with the other themes of the poem and with other historical periods, while the poet's present straits are never far from the poem - whether it is old Ez folding his blanket, or the conversation or kindnesses of his guards, or the movements or cries of his fellow prisoners -soldiers, some of them scheduled for execution.
The Khalif had a sister called Abassa, of whom he was passionately fond, and whose company he preferred to everything but the conversation of Jaafer. These two pleasures he would fain have joined together, by carrying Jaafer with him in his visits to Abassa but the laws of the Harem, which forbade anyone except a near relation being introduced there, made that impossible and he was obliged to be absent either from his sister or from his favourite. At length he discovered a method which he hoped would enable him to enjoy at the same time the society of these two persons who were so dear to him This was to unite Jaafer and Abassa in marriage. They were married accordingly but with this express condition, that they should never meet except in the presence of the Khalif. Their interviews, however, were very frequent and as neither could be insensible of the amiable qualities which the other possessed, a mutual affection took place between them. Blinded by their passion, they forgot the...
In a conversation with Samuel Johnson shortly after the initial volumes of his Lives of the English Poets (1779-81) appeared, James Boswell raised the touchy issue of Johnson's subordination to the London booksellers who initiated the project I asked him if he would provide a preface to any dunce's works, if they should ask him. Johnson. 'Yes, Sir and say he was a dunce.' 1 Johnson's reply asserts the complete autonomy of his critical judgments, declaring that even the economic concerns of those who financed the Lives would have no effect on the content of his prefaces. Most readers of the Lives agreed that Johnson maintained his intellectual independence, surpassing the work of his predecessors and transforming the not very extensive or difficult 2 undertaking into something much more complicated as Robert Halsband observes, the Lives represented the culmination of his career as well as the art and craft of literary biography up to that time. 3 Yet despite Johnson's declarations, the...
The first poet who frankly acknowledged his indebtedness to Sana'l as a writer of a didactical masnavl was Ilyas ibn Yusuf NizamI of Ganja (1141-1209). He claimed that he could surpass his predecessor in a didactical poem, Makhzan al-asrar ('Treasury of Secrets'), a masnavl of moderate size (about 2,250 distichs) for which he chose another metre, the sari than Sana' had used. The rather trivial reason of this literary rivalry was that NizamI dedicated his work to another Bahramshah, a semi-independent ruler of Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia. In this case, however, the panegyric is of little importance. Just as in the Hadiqa, the discourse is a continuous sermon, but NizamI made a very clear plan for his poem. It is divided into twenty chapters, called maqalas, each with the same structure first, a theoretical part, then an exemplary story and finally a conclusion attached to the story. Each chapter closes with an apostrophe to the poet himself containing his pen name just as this is...
Auden was one of the leading poets of the 20th century. No other poet exhibited his range of genre, style, or subject matter. His poetry drew on such varied resources as fairy tales, Anglo-Saxon myth and meter, Icelandic sagas, songs (ancient, medieval, modern), ballads, lyric poetry, odes, epics, satires, parodies, epigrams, elegies, meditations, arguments, and urbane, witty conversations. Unlike poets of a single voice, Auden mastered, then abandoned voices and styles, not as a dabbler but as a talented virtuoso, with encyclopedic interests and a conviction that no single perspective can reveal the truth. From an early modernist beginning, influenced by T. S. eliot, his poetry progressed into a middle period of Freudian and Marxist social critique and gradually into a more accessible, conversational style with a broadly christian perspective. During the 1950s and 1960s, he was a model for American poets writing formal verse, such as John Hollander, Richard wilbur, and, later,...
American poetry cannot be discussed in the same way as, say, French or Russian influences It would be more accurate to speak of conversations. The earliest cross-border conversations were nurtured through the context of the little magazine (see poetry journals). In the early 1950s, Cid corman, the American editor of Origin, and Raymond Souster, the Canadian editor of Contact, established a correspondence that was to last for some time. According to Frank Davey, Corman quickly became Souster's most important and prolific correspondent to date 1980 they have exchanged almost one thousand letters (Souster, 16). Contact was unusually internationalist in its editorial focus, an internationalism encouraged by Corman, and it was one of the first Canadian literary magazines to recognize and advance the poetry of the Ezra POUND William Carlos Williams line, including work by Charles olson, Robert creeley, and Denise levertov. Contact was to publish 10 issues from 1952 to 1954, but, aside from...
Created a voice that combined a New York City street toughness with a classicist's cultural reference and a metaphysician's concern with experience and its implications. His metaphysical bent, along with his early inspiration from jazz and visual art, connect him to the new YORK school, but he drew away both geographically and thematically. Like Alan dugan, he became a maverick presence on the American poetic landscape, as much defined by his differences from major trends as by his similarities. Finkel himself cites Robert frost as his most important influence ( Conversation ).
Miles's lyrics are often short, terse observations of a detached, acerbic, scholar The gang wanted to give Oedipus Rex a going away present He had been a good hard-working father and king ( Oedipus 1960 ). She might also report and reflect on overheard conversation Said, Pull her up a bit will you, Mac, I want to unload there. Said, Pull her up my rear end, first come first serve ( Reason 1955 ). In her later work, she comments on current events, yet she connects them to her life This was a dark year for Spiro Agnew It was a dark year for me too ( Sleeve 1979 ). In all her work, there speaks the voice of one who loves the poetry of the common American idiom and who can perceive the complexity in the most common American experience.
US Ben Jonson (1623) Ben Jonson wrote his famous poem celebrating William Shakespeare to be prefaced to the first folio of Shakespeare's plays. Although many readers may recall Jonson's well-publicized remark that Shakespeare wanted art, his elegy puts to rest any suspicion that he did not admire William Shakespeare. As George Parfitt notes, that particular remark has been incorrectly assumed to represent Jonson's definitive opinion. However, because of Jon-son's penchant for epigrams and sometimes terse remarks, as well as the fact that this quotation was recorded by William Drummond of Hawthornden after a conversation he had with the poet, too much has been made of the statement. While Jonson never pretended complete agreement with Shakespeare's literary views, he did not believe that Shakespeare did not produce art. He more likely felt that Shakespeare was not artistic enough in terms of Jonson's ideals. Although it may be too reductive an evaluation, for the purposes of discussion...
The porcelain, among some talk of you and me - emphasizes the triviality of Prufrock's conversation, which never transcends the social and physical environment in which he is trapped. Prufrock does not blame the woman for not understanding him in fact, as he says in the following stanza, It is impossible to say just what I mean In reducing himself to a pair of ragged claws Scuttling across the floors of silent seas, Prufrock expresses a sense of isolated despair about his inability to engage in meaningful communion with another person. and another 82 lines from the beginning of Death by Water. He also convinced Eliot to cut three short lyrics he intended to use as interludes, and to eliminate conventional poetic diction and nonessential verbiage. The final product is, as Eliot himself tells us at the end of the poem, a loosely connected patchwork of fragments. The poem has no single speaker, no single rhetorical mode or style (it is in turns narrative, conversational, descriptive,...
A richer idea of Irish culture than we were previously accustomed to. The edges of Ireland become blurred and we see that Irish culture was not formed out some unsullied source in the misty Celtic past, but out of centuries of negotiation and conversation with Rome and early Christian Europe, and then most importantly with England in its earlier embodiments, and later as imperial centre. Like most other European cultures, Irish culture is hybrid, and becomes interesting as soon as the liens of ownership and lines of influence are most tangled and messy.
These formal devices are not simply intended to make the poem more difficult or experimental they play an important role in defining the voice and mood of the poem's speaker. This speaker is not the articulate confes-sionalist of Lowell's Skunk Hour, nor is he the self-dramatizing persona of Plath's Lady Lazarus. Instead, this is a speaker who stumbles through his narrative - interrupting himself with self-analysis ( because I am always talking ) and clarifications ( which was not his name ) - until he is cut off by his friend's warning to watch where he is going. Further, his speech act takes place in a very untraditional setting for a lyric poem he is talking while driving a car. Though the speaker appears to be having a conversation with his friend, the rhythm of the poem is not typically conversational instead, as Lynn Keller observes, The crowding of stresses and the unnatural pauses communicate both the speaker's anxious restraint and his need for release. 4
Dryden, a man who wrote in literally every important form, can be used as representative of literary thought from 1660 to 1700. His preference for a simple natural wit guided his choice of format in drama. He turned from the elaborate styles of Milton and John Donne's metaphysical conceits to embrace a blank verse that imitated urbane conversation. While figura
Rogers, in a conversation with David Elliott, called scientific terminology an evocative, musical, beautiful vocabulary, which she believes has been neglected by contemporary poets (19). For example, The Verification of Vulnerability Bog Turtle (1986) contains a description of a turtle's body that combines zoological terminology with poetic simile The turtle's carapace resembles beveled wood, and the hingeless plastron becomes a fortified chest, which shields the turtle's heart, or its particle of vulnerability.
Perhaps the most noteworthy aspect of both old English versions of the Consolation is the way Alfred has recast Boethius's original work, framed as a conversation between Boethius and Lady Philosophy, into more explicitly Christian terms. For example, the narrator (referred to simply as Mind for most of the work)
In his poem On the Oregon Coast, Galway Kinnell describes a conversation with fellow-poet Richard Hugo in which the two agree that as post-Darwinians it was up to us to anthropomorphize the world less and animalize, vegetable-ize, and mineralize ourselves more. We doubted that pre-Darwinian language would let us. This attempt to make language express the self's folding into the elemental world around it produces the subjects frequent in Kinnell's poetry the primal rhythms of birth and death, transcendence and mortality, raw confrontations of survival, sexual love, memory, and time. Kinnell's poetry is first and foremost personal. Sometimes his subject is a member of his family - perhaps a son's birth or a young daughter's nightmare - but the poetry is rooted in the poet's response to and meditation upon what the experiences might reveal of the human place in a world outside of human order and understanding. The poet for Kinnell is finally an
Woman no less beautiful than talented. She was devoted to the study of rhetoric and poetry she cultivated the friendship of the distinguished poets of her age, and frequently indulged in the pleasure of their conversation. In writing she had a great deal of wit and acumen, as may be seen from this distich. Cassiri Bib. Hisp.
Immerse oneself in a thickly referential textual world. This highlights an essential aspect of georgic, and a main source of its attraction. When we read georgic verse, we engage imaginatively with a massy, bristling record of one man's physical and topical world (until the appearance of Vita Sackville-West's The Land in 1926, formal georgic is written by men). The value of any georgic lies in showing how one individual (a) chose to interpret and respond to a specific literary challenge and (b) responded to a variety of topics about which he or she evidently cared a great deal. Georgic is for readers who relish that sense of particularity it is also for those who like generous explanatory notes and enjoy the kind of quirky, thoughtful topical conversation they ideally evoke.
They adjured, entreated, expostulated but, when it grew late, they found themselves obliged to submit, and all of them recovered their clothes except Onaiza, who renewed her adjurations, and continued a long time in the water at length she also performed the condition, and dressed herself. Some hours had passed, when the girls complained of cold and hunger. Amriolkais therefore instantly killed the young camel on which he had ridden, and having called the female attendants together, made a fire and roasted him. The afternoon was spent in gay conversation, not without a cheerful cup, for he was provided with wine in a leathern bottle. But, when it was time to follow the tribe, the prince (for such was his rank) had neither camel nor horse and Onaiza, after much importunity, consented to take him on her camel, before the carriage, while the other damsels divided among themselves the less agreeable burden of his arms and the furniture of his beast.
The quatrain is most often an epigram, the terse formulation of a poetical idea, suitable to serve as a brief interruption in a conversation, a sermon or a prose composition. Because of the great variety of its uses, it is impossible to delimit the subject-matter of the quatrain. Ruba Is deal with any theme that could be treated in classical Persian poetry. Particular to them is a pithy and pointed mode of expression, using wit and striking images in order to enforce and illustrate the poet's statement. To be successful the poem has to express a certain development of thought, for which in many cases the third non-rhyming line is used. It connects the initial idea or image put forward in the first two lines to a conclusion contained in the final line. This structural feature made the quatrain into an important medium for maxims, which may convey mere secular wisdom but also profound religious ideas.
Just as Eliot, Hulme and Pound shaped their poetry through complex interactions with their literary predecessors, so the poets who came after them defined themselves in various ways against the modernist tradition. During the 1920s Eliot and Pound were the vanguard of poetic revolution The Waste Land and The Cantos dramatically expanded the possibilities of what one could do in poetry. Their sophisticated metrical experiments established free verse as a flexible yet demanding medium and provided a form that could express the variety of rhythms of conversation. They returned the venerable form of the long poem to use in modern poetry by replacing continuous narrative with juxtaposed images, vignettes, and quotations. In terms of content, the
The references here to celestial flames, sublime ideas, and inspiration suggest Roscommon's attraction not to a poetry of order and reason but to one of grandeur and elevated flight. As he argues, the classical inheritance does not preclude fire and sublimity in modern verse - rather, it is through the inspiration of Virgil that contemporary poets can strive to create their own lofty works. Such interest in the sublime can also be found in Pope's Essay on Criticism. Alongside the attraction to Horatian conversation and visions of Aristotelian order, we can also see Pope's enthusiasm for the rapturous mode of the Longinian sublime. This is most clearly encapsulated in his famous praise of the critic who can From vulgar Bounds with brave Disorder part, And snatch a Grace beyond the Reach of Art (ll. 155-6).
Scientist and poet in this project were given the impossible task of sharing, over one lunch, the sense of mystery and challenge of science and the sense of music and ideas in poetry, each in their own particular style. The time was much too short and our conversation could easily have stretched over several meetings when the opportunity to focus on issues and clarify connections would have been possible. I had expected the language of science to be a hurdle, as it is to students new to biology, but Robert took the dialect in his stride. When I explained the object I had brought with me (an automated pipette) as a symbol of measurement and precision, Robert likened it to a pen. On my side, I learned that the mystery of poetry is that the connotations of words can be different for each reader, evoking different pictures from the same music.
Although the original plan for this book was drawn up by myself, I have benefited enormously from the suggestions of individuals too numerous to name, but mostly of my contributors, whose influence on the book, in many cases, has extended far beyond their named contributions. I am indebted to many of them for the final shape of the book, and often for suggesting other contributors. Above all I want to thank Hugh Witemeyer for the conversations in New Mexico, at the very beginning of the project, which helped enormously to start it off. I am also grateful to Peter Derlien for generously giving me his time to help to accomplish the daunting task of proofreading.
Argument Conversation Oratory Reasons Speech Conversation Argument Oratory Silence Society Speech Oratory Conversation Reasons Speech Secret Conversation Friendship Silence Conversation Evening Night Summer Society Conversation Friendship Home Hospitality Scandal Speech Speech Argument Conversation Oratory Silence Society Table, The Conversation Home Hospitality
When the singer had recited these lines, a state of ecstacy came upon the denuishes. They danced the whole night until the morning on these verses continuing to be in an excited mood. The singer repeated the verses so often that the Master learned them by heart. When he came home he asked his father to tell him what they meant. 'Be silent V, his father said, 'If you cannot grasp their meaning, why bother about them ' Later, when his father had died already, Abu Said often quoted the poem in the course of his conversations. He then added 'Today I would have to say to my father, At that time you did not know yourself what you heard '.15
Such call-and-response structures can stand alone as dramatic dialogues, or be embedded in narrative, as they are in most ballads and novels breaking into dialogue. One of the most important inventions of the period, the conversation poem, as Coleridge labeled The Nightingale when it appeared in Lyrical Ballads, is indebted to this ballad technique. It is the innovation of Tintern Abbey and Frost at Midnight to have a silent auditor to the conversation, rather than voices existing in the presence of one another, and perhaps the conversation poem's ascendance explains why the epistolary poem, so popular during the earlier eighteenth century, almost disappears in the Romantic period.
Ethnopoetic scholarship may involve analysis, translation, or transcription of texts gained from living traditional poets, singers, and storytellers, or it may take up previously collected ethnographic texts and retranslate them to expose their aesthetic and culturally informative dimensions. Some of the most valuable ethnopoetic texts have entailed collaboration between formally trained scholars and traditional artists. Finding the Center (1978) presents an exemplary collection of poetic narratives performed by Walter Sanchez and Andrew Peynetsa, two traditional Zuni tellers from New Mexico Tedlock produced the book by making an audio recording, translating, then transcribing the pieces for performance. The result is a book that allows one to read the works and feel nearly present in the performances. Also from the American Southwest, Yaqui Deer Songs, Maso Bwikam A Native American Poetry (1987) is a remarkable collaboration between scholar Larry Evers and singer Felipe S. Molina. It...
A Lucius Cornelius Scipio, son of Gnaeus, grandson of Gnaeus. This tombstone holds great wisdom and many virtues with a short life. This man , whose life, not his own probity, ran short for gaining public office (lit., ran short with respect to public office), and who was never surpassed in virtue, is buried here. Twenty years of age (lit., born twenty years), he has been entrusted to the places (i.e., the Underworld). Do not ask why he was not entrusted with public office. b Stranger, what I have to say is short stand by and read it through. Here is the not beautiful tomb of a beautiful woman. Her parents gave her the name of Claudia. She loved her husband with all her heart. She gave birth to two sons of these one she leaves on earth, the other she puts below the earth. Her conversation was charming, yet her bearing was proper. She kept house, she made wool. I have spoken what I have to say . Go on your way (lit., go away).
The poem begins with a conversation between a man and a woman He asks her if he may lie in her lap, and she invites him to nap. The man is so drowsy . . . That of hys love he toke no kepe, (ll. 8-9) the speaker tells us, before directly addressing the man with a two-line refrain With, Lullay, lullay, lyke a chylde, Thou slepyst to long, thou art begyled (ll. 1-2) which follows all stanzas except the fourth.
(A iong conversation follows between Adam and the Devil Adam demand why the Devil pursues them with such perpetual hatred and, in reply, Lucifer recounts his fall from heaven, which he says was caused by his refusal to obey the command of God that he should worsmp Adam, 'Phis command he refused, because he,
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