Pavlova and Literary Conventions

How did Pavlova respond to the literary issues facing the women poets of her generation As regards self-representation, Pavlova never referred to herself as a poetessa. In Sonet (Sonnet, 1839, 76), she refers to herself as poet only obliquely and in the third person Bespechnyi zhe poet vsegda dushoi ditia (The carefree poet is always a child in soul). Three years later she more directly states in a poem to Evgenii Baratynsky Then believed in myself. (E. A. Baratynskomu To E. A. Baratynsky ,...

Gatekeepers Reception Reputation

Khvoshchinskaia's career as a poet, according to Praskov'ia Khvosh-chinskaia, began in 1847, when she was twenty-three. A friend of the family arranged to have a notebook of Khvoshchinskaia's poetry delivered to Vladimir Zotov (1821-96), then editor of Literaturnaia gazeta. As discussed in chapter 1, women writers, lacking the entr e into literature that men enjoyed through salons and universities, found it difficult to make the contacts with men necessary to get published. Those women writers...

Rostopchina as Poetessa

But she never even thought of renouncing the feminine quality of her poetry, to try to become a Poet, and not a Poetess. (Afanas'ev, 'Da, zhenskaia dusha,' 9) Critics have also trivialized Rostopchina's work by invoking the poetessa archetype to describe it. In chapter 1 we discussed the contrast between the terms poet, which, as one scholar has remarked, in Russia is honorific as much as descriptive, and poetessa, which connotes both excess and lack.43 Except for a brief period in the 1830s...

Vii

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Social Conditions for Noncanonical Men Poets

Like all the women poets, most of the noncanonical men poets enjoyed less literary social capital than the canonical men this because they were some combination of lower class, poor, uneducated, non-Russian, and provincial. Pavel Fedotov, the son of a retired lieutenant, grew up in a large and poor Moscow family. Although he attended the lite Cadet Corps, from which he graduated as an ensign, he struggled with poverty for most of his life. Evgenii Mil'keev, also the son of a minor civil servant...

Social Conditions

The social conditions that these poets shared included Russian women's educational, economic, legal, and literary-historical status.1 As we shall see, these poets responded to those conditions in a great variety of ways. During the first half of the nineteenth century the only education available for nonserf women all the poets in this group was provided by home tutors, instituty (government-run boarding schools for girls of the nobility), or private pensions of varying quality.2 The first...

The Lyric

The final and most encompassing poetic genre, or kind, to be discussed is the Romantic lyric. Lyric originally referred to one of three modes of literature a musical mode, sung to the lyre, as opposed to the epic and drama. In this sense the ballad and the elegy are genres of lyric. However, since the Renaissance the lyric itself has come to be considered a genre a poem with such characteristics as brevity, metrical coherence, subjectivity, passion(New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and...

Nadezhda Khvoshchinskaia

While Nadezhda Khvoshchinskaia (1824-89) has been recognized for the novels and stories she wrote under the pseudonym V. Krestovsky the wonderful poetry that she wrote under her own name has been forgotten.1 There are many reasons for the disappearance of these works from literary history. First, in the course of her life Khvoshchinskaia herself seemed to lose interest in her poetry she neither published nor apparently wrote any poems after 1859, nor did she collect her more than eighty...

Literary Conventions

Several literary critics have argued that Romanticism was a male-gendered institution. Certainly we find in the Russian poetry of the first half of the nineteenth century such blatantly male-centered Romantic conventions as the friendly epistle (druzheskoe poslanie) celebrating the cult of male friendship, anacreontic odes, and Bacchic poetry.1 Here I would like to consider some of the ways that women poets of this period dealt with two less obvious but more basic androcentric Romantic...

Ii

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Kophhha

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Evdokiia Rostopchina

Evdokiia Rostopchina (1811-58), one of the few recognized women poets of her generation, has been the subject of numerous biographical accounts by memoirists and literary critics. One finds, however, a surprising uniformity among these biographies.1 The same episodes repeatedly reappear in the same way, almost in the same words, like scenes from a saint's life. This official biography has in turn shaped ideas about Rostopchina's work, influencing her literary reputation. It is worth examining...

Ballada

The ballad has been described as a narrative poem of twenty to eighty lines, characterized by compressed, objective narration, with an emphasis on action rather than character. Both motivation and denouement are often described enigmatically. Other characteristics include an abrupt opening question, violent plots with supernatural elements, revelation through dialogue, lack of moralizing, and fragmentariness. Although the ballad an oral folk genre of medieval origin would not seem to be an...

Gender and Genre

The previous two chapters outlined the social conditions that the poets we have been considering faced as women, as well as their varying responses to male-defined literary conventions. In this chapter I would like to consider their distinctive use of genre and themes, which, as we shall see, are interrelated. Recently some scholars have dismissed genre as arbitrary, if not meaningless Genre is any group of works selected on the basis of some shared feature (Reichert, More Than Kin, 57). Most,...

AHHa TyPahhhoba

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Epic Poema Ballada

The epic was the most prestigious of all neoclassical kinds of literature many critics also consider it the source of both the poema (verse epic) and the ballada (ballad).10 For these reasons the gender norms of the epic, which applied to both authors and characters, exerted particular influence. Various definitions of the epic describe it as a male-gendered genre, written by men, about men, and for men. One scholar writes that the epic gives voice to the commonly shared values and aspirations...

Reception of Noncanonical Men Poets

While none of these poets is considered first rank, their reputations range considerably. I would suggest that as sexual politics has influenced the reception of the women poets, so literary and class politics have influenced the reception of the noncanonical men. Let us take, for example, the contrasting literary receptions of two nonaristocratic poets from the provinces, Kol'tsov and Mil'keev. Kol'tsov was discovered in Voronezh by the philosopher and poet Nikolai Stankevich 1813-40 and...

Karolina Pavlova

Over the past few decades Karolina Pavlova born Jaenisch, 1807-93 has become the best-known Russian woman poet of her generation. This is not to suggest that she has received her due. As mentioned in the introduction, historically she has been considered less important than her husband, Nikolai Pavlov 1803-64 , a litt rateur who authored a total of six short stories. As recently as 1998 a five-hundred-page authorized Russian university textbook on mid-nineteenth-century Russian literature...

Introduction

This study offers some preliminary suggestions toward rethinking Russian Romanticism, issues of canonicity, and the place of mid-nineteenth-century women poets in the history of Russian literature. While the question of whether Russia had a Romantic movement has been debated,1 most scholars agree that Romanticism was a pan-European phenomenon with national variations, one of which was Russian. Ren Wellek has defined three underlying elements common to all national Romantic movements, Russia's...

Pavlova and Polozhenie zhenshchiny

While gender cannot be considered a major theme in Pavlova's oeuvre, over a twenty-year period she published five works that directly address polozhenie zhenshchiny, the position in society of ordinary and extraordinary women Jeanne d'Arc 1839 , Tri dushi Three souls, 1845 , Dvoinaia zhizn' 1847 , Kadril' 1859 , and Za chainym stolom At the Tea Table, 1859 . A chronological examination of these works shows the evolution of Pavlova's ideas concerning women's position in society and literature....

Note on Transliteration Punctuation and Abbreviations

I use modified Library of Congress transliteration of Russian in modern orthography with one exception men's names ending in -ii are written as such in the notes Belinskii but changed to the more familiar -y Belinsky in the text. The reader will notice that many of the poems cited include the Romantic device of suspension points three un-spaced dots intimating the ineffable which in the translations appear as three spaced dots without brackets. Suspension points should not be confused with...

The Elegy

In Russia the elegy may be considered a central or even the central Romantic poetic genre. At the dawn of Romanticism, the writer and historian Nikolai Karamzin wrote, The first poetry was elegiac Pervaia Poeziia byla Elegicheskaia , referring to the genre's combination of natural surroundings and laments over the loss of love Grigor'ian, 'Ul'traromanticheskii rod poezii, 95, capitalization is Karamzin's . The Russian poet and critic Vil'gel'm Kiukhel'beker 1797-1846 identified the elegy with...

Moh Meptehok

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Sexualization

Not only Rostopchina's life but also her work have been sexualized by both positive and negative criticism. The positive earlier reviews condescendingly but dismissively praised her work for its femininity or leeringly pointed to its revelations of feminine secrets. The negative reviews condemned Rostopchina for being banal and boring too feminine and or immoral or indecently sexual not feminine enough Definitely the best verse that has ever fluttered down to paper from sweet, ladylike little...

Poetical Practices

As we have noted in the course of this study the poetical practices of non-canonical men and women poets resemble each other, while differing from those of the canonical men. Many women and men noncanonical poets avoided classical themes, presumably because they lacked a classical education. Both women and men noncanonical poets wrote many more prayers, poems to family members, and poems about children lullabies, elegies on their deaths .6 Noncanonical men poets less frequently personify nature...

Reception

We have looked at some differences in the way these women poets approached the most characteristic Romantic poetic genres the poema, the ballad, the elegy and the lyric. How did such differences affect the reception of their work As mentioned in the introduction, it seems likely that men literary gatekeepers publishers, critics, editors ignored women's poetry or found it irrelevant or meaningless because they had no knowledge of the experience it evoked. For example, as mentioned in the...

Haflefla Xbohhcka3

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