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Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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Tradition and the Rise of the Universities

The political disruption in Europe in the 1930s brought European artists to New York for much the same reasons as in 1914, although it was a measure of the international scope of American culture in the 25 years up to 1939 that these visitors had less of a visible impact than the earlier wave. Most prominent of the artistic refugees on the east coast were the surrealists (many prominent French and German film directors went to Hollywood, with mixed fortunes). The surrealist emphasis upon the vocabulary of the subconscious and the unmediated expression of the subconscious in artistic expression received a welcome among avant-garde journals, and appeared to give a renewed boost to the modernist claims that the conventions of form - now dominant again with the rise of New Criticism - were an anachronism. But its foremost legacy was its contribution to abstract expressionism, the first international art movement with American origins, and a movement which itself had an influence upon some...

Carl Sandburg 18781967

Carl Sandburg's poetry came out of the literary movement centered in Chicago around the time of the First World War that sought a direct, usually celebratory, often urban realism in contrast to the genteel sentimentalities of much late Romantic magazine poetry. Out of this movement also came the prose of Sherwood Anderson, Edgar Lee Masters's Spoon River Anthology, and Poetry magazine, but of all these Sandburg's poetry was most quintessentially the poetry of the city and the people. He lived for most of his life in Chicago.

Robinson Jeffers 18871962

Jeffers went on to a good deal of critical and popular success in the 1920s and 1930s with a series of volumes that articulated his theme, influenced by his reading of Nietzsche, of a necessary stoicism against the power, violence, and beauty of nature. His adaptation of Euripedes' Medea (1946) was a great success in New York, with the title role played by Judith Anderson, and this triumph brought him national attention. But his view of the Second World War as a prime example of the human propensity to self-destruction was not a popular one. His 1948 volume, The Double Axe and Other Poems, now considered by some critics his finest, appeared with a disclaimer from the publisher, who had also insisted upon some of the intended poems being removed. He insists in his late poem Carmel Point We must uncenter our minds from ourselves We must unhumanize our views a little, and become confident As the rock and ocean that we were made from. And his stoic pessimism is summed up in the lines from...

Samuel Beckett 190689

Born and raised in Ireland, Samuel Beckett moved permanently to Paris in 1938 and subsequently wrote primarily in his adopted French. A teacher in his early career, he was later a participant in the French Resistance during the Second World War. An author of many novels, Beckett first produced Waiting for Godot in Paris in 1953 two years later, in London, the author translated the text back into his native tongue for its first production in English. In his later plays such as Endgame, Krapp's Last Tape, and Happy Days, Beckett continued to break down the conventions of traditional theater. His novels include Watt, Molloy, Malone Dies, and How It Is. In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

England and its poetry in 1820

We would not, then, expect 1820 to be immortalized as the prior year was in Shelley's England in 1819, or as the Regency's opening in 1811, marked by economic distress giving rise to Luddite resistance and key events in the war with Napoleon, was immortalized in Anna Laetitia Barbauld's Eighteen Hundred and Eleven. Yet there did appear in London during 1821 Eighteen Hundred and Twenty A Poem, probably by Alexander Hill Everett, an American diplomat then serving in The Hague, whose career, leading him to Spain, Cuba, and China, reminds us of that era's globalization, brought on by imperial efforts and the Napoleonic world war. Mixing an odal appeal to Spain's liberal revolution (which Shelley also celebrated in his 1820 Ode to Liberty ) with a couplet satire on the post-Napoleonic Restoration, the poem lampoons ultra-legitimatist monarchs, in part by suggesting that they see all the tribulations of their day arising from two early modern figures -Luther, identified with freedom of...

Robert Lowell 19171977

Lowell worked on the galleys of his first book, Land of Unlikeness (1944) while serving a prison sentence in Danbury, Connecticut, for declaring himself a conscientious objector to the world war when he had received his induction papers. The first ten days of his one year and one day sentence (of which he served six months in prison) was spent in New York City's West Street jail. That experience later formed the subject of his well-known poem Memories of West Street and Lepke in Life Studies (1959).

Ferlinghetti Lawrence 1919

Born in Yonkers, New York, Ferlinghetti had an early childhood fraught with upheaval. His father died before Lawrence, the youngest of five sons, was born. His birth mother broke down under the difficulties she faced and was institutionalized for a number of years. separated from his brothers, Ferlinghetti was subsequently abandoned without warning by his foster mother and left in the care of her employers. Thomas Wolfe's literary appeal led Ferlinghetti to choose Wolfe's alma mater, the University of North Carolina, for his postsecondary education, and he graduated with a bachelors degree in 1941. After naval service in World War ii, he earned a master's degree from Columbia in 1947 and a Ph.D. at the Sorbonne in 1949. His dissertation examined The City as a Symbol in Modern Poetry, and urban geography is a significant figure in Ferlinghetti's creative work.

James Dickey 19231997

James Dickey was born in Atlanta, Georgia. After a year at Clemson College he enlisted in the air force and was posted to the Pacific. Upon his return he studied at Vanderbilt, graduating with an MA in 1950, and having determined to be a writer. In that same year he had his first important publication when The Sewanee Review accepted his poem The Shark at the Window. He began teaching at Rice University with the initial intention of finishing his doctorate, but was recalled to the air force during the Korean War -although, contrary to some of his own later accounts, he stayed in the US, working at a number of military bases in the south. Dickey had a tendency to inflate biographical details, exaggerating his flying exploits in the Pacific in the Second World War, for example. Upon his return to Rice, Dickey struggled to publish his poetry and creative prose, and lost interest in completing his doctoral dissertation. Dickey's poems in these years mirror the formal vein of Allen Tate,...

Perchik Simon 1923 Simon

Perchik was born in Paterson, New Jersey. After serving as a pilot in World War II, he earned both a B.A. in English and a law degree from New York university. In 1964 he published his first book, I Counted only April, and has since published more than 20 chapbooks and books of poetry.

Modernism And The Ideal Society

The First World War turned the modernists from poet aesthetes cultivating the objective correlative and the image into poet critics concerned with the regeneration of society. In his preface to the 1928 edition of The Sacred Wood, Eliot commented that, since writing its emphatically literary essays eight years before, he had 'passed on to another problem not touched upon in this book that of the relation of poetry to the spiritual and social life of its time and of other times' (1976 viii). Pound, more candidly, remarked that 'the symbolist position, artistic aloofness from world affairs, is no good now' (1921 1). During the 1920s, as Europe struggled to recover from the social and economic effects of the war, Eliot and Pound joined many other intellectuals disillusioned with the political leadership in setting out their own analyses of the post-war situation and their prescriptions for a way forward.

Ransom John Crowe 18881974

At 15 he entered Vanderbilt University his primary interest was philosophy. After graduation he studied classics as a Rhodes scholar at Oxford from 1910 to 1913. Upon returning from England, he was appointed to the English department faculty at Vanderbilt. Outside of military service in World War I, he remained at Van-derbilt until departing in 1937 for Kenyon College, where he founded the literary journal the Kenyon Review. He was awarded the Bollingen Prize for poetry in 1951 and the National Book Award in 1964. His first book, Poems about God (1919), was written during World War I, but he quickly became disillusioned with the work. During his years with the Fugitives, he published Chills and Fever (1924) and Two Gentlemen in Bonds (1927), and it is these two collections upon which his reputation rests. By 1927 Ransom ceased writing poetry in favor of criticism.

New York New Directions 1948

Pound had begun The Cantos during the First World War, while he was still based in London. Individual cantos appeared separately, and sometimes Pound revised them, and in 1925 he published A Draft of XVI Cantos with William Bird's Three Mountains Press. A Draft of XXX Cantos appeared in 1930, and various additions appeared up to 1940. The sequence would continue until Drafts & Fragments of Cantos CX-CXVII in 1968, four years before Pound s death. Following an opening canto based upon book XI of Homer's Odyssey, the sweep of this challenging epic takes in the social, political, economic, and cultural history of East and West, across three continents, in multiple languages, and is structured around particulars and allusions that are juxtaposed, recur, and connect - sometimes across widely separated cantos.

London Faber Faber 1965

Childbirth (in January 1962 Plath's second child, Nicholas, was born) an awareness - sometimes accompanied by violence - of the body as object the rituals of writing domesticity, hospitals, and beekeeping (the last an interest of Plath's father) oppressive male figures the pain that love can bring escape, and death. Although the subjects and even the attitudes of many of the poems can be tied to the persons, places, and events of Plath's private life in the period in which she wrote Ariel, her placement within the mode of Confessional poet has sometimes obscured the ways in which the poems project a self or series of selves that are not necessarily the individual poet, but rather a more wide-ranging self facing the oppression of history, particularly that of the Second World War, in addition to private losses and betrayals. In particular, some of Plath's imagery of the Holocaust and of male oppression as historically associated with fascism, which has come in for some criticism as...

Benet Stephen Vincent 18981943

Benet wrote passionately in democracy's defense from World War Il's outbreak until his death. In Nightmare at Noon (1940), he acknowledges Americas failure to fulfill its ideals, as symbolized by the lynchers rope, the bought justice, the wasted land, but he refuses to abandon the promise of democratic freedom that was bought with the bitter and anonymous blood of past generations. The radio verse-drama Listen to the People (1941) concludes with the commitment to sustain t his peaceless vision, groping for the stars. As the poet-historian of American democracy, in the words of Parry Stroud (145), Benet brought Americas past to life and sought its future.

Continuities and Nationality in Twentieth Century American Poetry

The poets, critics, and novelists who rejected the international modernism represented by the work of Pound, Eliot, and H.D., writers mainly based in New York, offered definitions of an American tradition that were sometimes carefully argued and sometimes aggressively mystical. The critics included Waldo Frank, Van Wyck Brooks, and Paul Rosenfeld. Conversely Eliot's influential essays argued for a broader view of tradition, as did Pound's, although Pound emphasized the importance of the new more than did the conservative Eliot. Pound had found it necessary to reject American literature almost entirely as he formed his earliest style, but in A Pact (1913) he acknowledged a poetic and national kinship with Whitman, and the later Cantos have a good deal to say about American history and politics. Pound's only prolonged stay in the United States after the 1910s was a forced one, when he was confined to St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington DC after being arrested for treason following...

Lehman David 1948 A New Yorker

Levertov, originally spelled Levertoff, was born in Ilford, Essex, England. She was the daughter of a Russian Jew who converted to become an Anglican priest. Raised in a bookish home, she was educated privately. Her mother read 19th-century novels and poetry to her, and her father provided her with a religious education. Levertov's desire to become a poet came early. At age 12 she sent T. S. eliot several of her poems, and she received from a him a two-page letter of encouragement. During World War II she was a nurse in London, and soon afterward she married the American writer Mitchell Goodman and had a son. Goodman introduced her to Creeley, and she soon came to know Olson, Duncan, and Williams. In 1948 she immigrated to the United States, and by 1955, when she became a U.S. citizen, her poetic style had become Americanized. She served as the poetry editor for the Nation (1961,1963-65) and Mother Jones (1975-78), and she also taught creative writing at, among other schools, Drew...

Guide to Further Reading

Second World War Michael Thurston, Making Something Happen American Political Poetry Between the World Wars (Chapel Hill, 2001). Looks at the political poetry of Edwin Rolfe, Pound, Hughes, and Rukeyser. Studies Focused upon Post-Second World War Poets and Poetry Harvey Shapiro, ed., Poets of World War II (New York, 2003). An anthology on an often overlooked theme.

Imagist School Imagism Imag

Encouraged sentimental optimism concerning the ultimate perfectibility of humankind and which led, in turn, to art that was soft and weakly expressive. In its place he advocated poetry built around the hard, dry image, along with a view of human beings as finite, fallible, and corrupt. This view would later strike a chord in members of the post-World War I Lost Generation, and it can be seen in the interwar themes of such major novelists as F Scott Fitzgerald and John Dos Passos.

Wilbur Richard 1921 Richard

Wilbur is arguably the most technically accomplished of the generation of poets born in the 1920s whose early work was influenced by World War II, including Howard nemerov, James dickey, James merrill, and Louis simpson. Having lived nearly all his life in New England, Wilbur's lyric poetry was greatly influenced by the traditional forms of Robert frost and Edwin Arlington robinson (see prosody and free verse). Wilbur was a part of the New Critical school of poetry, which, during the 1950s and 1960s, largely through the influence of A. Richards, John Crowe ransom, and Allen tate (see fugitive agrarian school), placed emphasis on a close reading of the work itself rather than psychological or biographical interpretation. Wilbur's work exhibits self-control, wit, grace, craftsmanship, and skill.

The Death Of The Ball Turret Gunner

Shocking the reader with its concise, gruesome ending, this is among the most powerful and successful American poems about World War II. The poem briefly tells the story of a young airman who is horrifically killed during a mission. Because he washed out of pilot training, Randall jarrell never experienced aerial combat. He did, however, train bomber crews. It was probably through the carrying out of his instructional duties that Jarrell became familiar with the ball turret, a small Plexiglas bubble protruding from the underside of a bomber plane.

Ezra Pound and the modernist image

In many ways, Ezra Pound epitomizes the avant-garde modernist poet outspoken, experimental, and fiercely iconoclastic. Pound had the most controversial career of any twentieth-century poet, and his overall place in American literature is more controversial than that of any other modernist. As a poet, a critic, and a promoter of other writers, Pound was central to the development of modernist poetry. T. S. Eliot, in dedicating his poem The Waste Land to Pound, called him the better craftsman ( il migliorfabbro ). Yet at the same time Pound was a literary vagabond who never felt entirely at home in any culture. Pound's restless energy led him to London in 1908, to Paris in 1920, and then to Rapallo, Italy, in 1925, where he would remain until the end of World War II. An exile who embraced Italian Fascism during the war and who was later indicted for treason, Pound was unique among American writers in the extent of his involvement not only with the art and literature of his time, but...

Paris Contact Publishing Company 1923

Although Williams's work appeared regularly in the leading avant-garde poetry magazines in New York, Chicago, London, and Paris after 1913, he had to publish his early poetry volumes wherever he could, and usually had to subsidize the cost. Before Spring and All he had published a small locally printed volume in 1909, The Tempers in 1913 in London through the help of Ezra Pound, and two volumes of poems and a book of prose improvisations with Edmund Brown's Four Seas Company in Boston. The books had barely sold at all, but in the early 1920s Williams had opportunities to publish in France thanks to the thriving expatriate community. Williams had very mixed feelings about the expatriates' migration, bitter that such artists had reneged, as he saw it, on the opportunity to develop the American art of international standard that New York in the years of the First World War seemed to promise. But, on the other hand, he was tempted in darker moments to

The New Criticism and postwar poetry

In the years following World War II, many younger poets adopted the formal style popularized by Auden and the New Critics. Much of the poetry written during the late 1940s and 1950s - a period identified as the Age of Conformity (Irving Howe) and the tranquillized Fifties (Robert Lowell) - paid more attention to matters of technique and formal method than to novelty of idea or conception. Many poets preferred to remain within the relative safety offixed forms like the sonnet or rhymed quatrain the social and political conservatism ofthe period was reflected in the poems themselves, which often avoided taking stylistic, thematic, or formal risks. The typical poetry of the period can be found in a number of anthologies that served to solidify the shared vision of an academic or mainstream style. Such collections as John Ciardi's Mid-Century American Poets (1950), Rolfe Humphries's New Poems by American Poets (1953), W H. Auden's Criterion Book of Modern American Verse (1956), and Donald...

T S Eliot and the wasteland of modernity

Eliot had suffered greatly from a disastrous marriage to Vivien Haigh-Wood in 1916. The other important context for the poem was World War I and its aftermath, which clearly took its toll on Eliot as it did on every writer or artist of his time. It is no mere coincidence that the opening section of The Waste Land is entitled The Burial of the Dead the poem is obsessed with death, and with the hoped-for possibility of a psychological and spiritual rebirth. The Waste Land is divided into five sections, some much longer than others. The title of section I, The Burial of the Dead, is a phrase from the Anglican burial service that refers to the dead of World War I but also to the dead body of the Fisher King, and thus, symbolically, to the death of civilization itself. It begins with some of the most celebrated lines in all of modern poetry

For Miklos Radnoti igogiQ44 i

From my window, I see a man on Broadway propped against a concrete wall. A brown joint dangles from his mouth as the traffic rushes by obscuring him. I remember the only photograph I've seen of Radnoti, a homemade cigarette poked between his Jewish lips, his wide sexual mouth breathing the putrid air of World War Two.

Harlem Renaissance

Several conditions enabled this renaissance Booker T. Washington's death, World War I, deteriorating southern racial conditions, greater publishing opportunities, and Marcus Garvey's influence on racial pride. When Booker T. Washington, a former slave and founder of Tuskegee Institute, died in 1915, W E. B. DuBois, the first African American to take a Ph.D. from Harvard and one of the principal organizers of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), replaced him as the principal spokesperson for African Americans. Although he held tremendous respect for Washington, DuBois disagreed strongly with his conciliatory attitude toward racial injustice in the South. DuBois endorsed more urgent demands for social change. When World War I ended in 1918, returning black soldiers, especially those who had been recognized in France for their heroic achievements, were angered by racial conditions that remained unchanged in the United States. When in 1917 Woodrow Wilson...

September 1 1939 W H Auden

(1939) September 1, 1939, written as Germany invaded Poland, signaled the end of the 1930s era of political activism, at least for W H. auden, one the most important political poets of the 1930s. The poem grew to have a significant place in the discussion of what makes a final, canonical version of a poem, as Auden excised one stanza from his Collected Poems (1945) and then later repudiated the entire poem. As World War II began, Auden saw, as he wrote in the poem, the clever hopes of a low dishonest decade dashed, dying as the threat of an evil nurtured by that decade and, by extension, Auden and his fellow leftists. The poem was also his farewell to England and to himself as an English poet. Ensconced in a

William Carlos Williams 18831963

William Carlos Williams, like Wallace Stevens, had a successful professional career outside of poetry, in Williams's case as a small-town physician in Rutherford, New Jersey. The two were also both members of the Others group centered around New York City at the time of the First World War, and remained lifelong if intermittent correspondents and generally respected each other's work. But whereas recognition and awards began to come Stevens's way from the 1940s, Williams had to wait until the 1950s for similar attention. But in that decade, with some of his books having been out of print for years, he became a major influence upon younger poets looking for alternatives to the tenets of formalist verse and New Criticism. Williams's range of correspondents became extensive, and visiting the by then largely housebound Williams in Rutherford became in effect an act of pilgrimage in the mid- to late 1950s for such poets as Robert Lowell, Allen Ginsberg, Denise Levertov, and Robert Creeley.

San Francisco Renaissance In the

Two decades following World War II, an overarching reevaluation of art and its purpose occurred. This The diversity of style so evident in the work of these poets is balanced by a common goal and concern. san Francisco Renaissance poets wanted a reborn American romanticism to embody poetry's return from academic institutions to the masses in the streets, to speak in the language of the ordinary person (in the tradition of William Carlos Williams) rather than of the academy, and to concern itself with populist issues. Although oral performance is integral to their poetic practice (see poetry in performance), renaissance poets also found outlets for their work in the pages of such periodicals as George Leite's Circle (1944) and, later, Barney Rosset's Evergreen Review (1957), and such publishing houses as Rosset's Grove Press, James Laughlin's New Directions, and Ferlinghetti's City Lights Books (see poetry presses). Ferlinghetti, scholar and poet, has also been described as that rarest...

Boston Houghton Mifflin 1946

Writing poems was always a slow process for Elizabeth Bishop. Although she had published prose and poetry in college magazines at Vassar, which she attended from 1930 to 1934, her first book of poems, North & South, did not appear until 1946. She worried about the thinness of the volume - it contained only 32 poems - and kept promising the publishers additional poems, which in the event were not completed in time. She also worried about the poems appearing to take no account of the recently ended world war. At her insistence the volume carried a note that Most of these poems were written, or partly-written, before 1942. The volume appeared as a result of a prize offered by Houghton Mifflin for a poetry fellowship, the 1,000 award to be supplemented by publication of the manuscript. The publicity of the prize ensured wide reviews of the book, some by influential figures, and Bishop's literary career was established.

Teasdale Sara 18841933 Sara Teas

Dale was an important voice of woman's poetry in the early 20th century (see female voice, female language). Her work, consistently appearing in monthly national magazines in the years before World War II, was well received by the public and critics alike. She identified with and is often compared to the 19th-century poet Elizabeth Barret Browning in theme, but her direct influence was the Victorian Christina Rossetti, about whom she had composed an unfinished biography.

Snodgrass William Dewitt

Born in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, Snodgrass escaped a constricting home life through service in the U.S. Navy during World War II. In Returned to Frisco, 1946 (1959), the returning serviceman senses lost freedoms in the irony offered by a flowered Alcatraz. Heart's Needle (1959), his acclaimed first book, won Snodgrass the 1960 Pulitzer Prize. In 1972-73 Snodgrass was accepted into the National Institute of Arts and Letters and the Academy of American Poets.

Lowell Robert 19171977 Robert

Lowell was a major voice in American poetry in the cold war years, from the end of the Second World War until his death. The endurance of his reputation can be attributed, in large part, to his success in associating personal torment, his so-called confessional subject matter, with the social and geopolitical struggles of the

Fugitiveagrarian School

Fugitives, a group of poets from Nashville, Tennessee, led the vanguard for modernist verse in the South in the 1920s (see MODERNISM). In contrast to the IMAGIST movement centered in England, the Fugitives emphasized traditional poetic forms and techniques, and their poems developed intellectual and moral themes focusing on an individual's relationship to society and to the natural world. The Fugitive group met relatively briefly, from the end of World War I to the late 1920s, and they published a journal of verse, the Fugitive, for only three years (1922-25). As poets, fiction writers, social critics, and literary theorists, however, the leading members of the group John Crowe ransom, Allen tate, Donald DAVIDSON, and Robert Penn warren have had an enormous impact on modern literature. the South in the wake of World War I. But in 1925, the same year that they chose to end the Fugitive, an event occurred that led them to reconfigure their notions of southern identity. That year John T....

Patchen Kenneth 19111972

His recordings have been released on the Folkways record label), irrational tales and verse, and painting. Strongly influenced by Walt Whitman and William Blake, Patchen's unique aesthetic followed no particular group or style, and, like Blake, he saw his art as the visionary work of a poet-prophet. From his introduction to Blake's The Book of Job (1947) also came one of Patchen's many assertions of personal and artistic freedom, a cry for personal liberty that contributed to the ethos of an emerging post-World War II American counterculture Do what you want and what you want will make everybody more beautiful. Working at odd jobs and traveling in the United States and Canada from 1930 to 1933, Patchen continued his writing. Permanence, a sonnet, was published in the New York Times in 1932. Before the Brave (1936), Patchen's first book of poetry, set out his favored themes of love and pacifism in the years leading to world war. In Class of 1934, a bitter survey of the prewar political...

American Poetry and a Century of Wars

The United States entered the First World War late, in 1917, and did not have such poets as Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon, and Isaac Rosenberg on the front lines sending back to a naively patriotic public reports of the actual horrors of the war. The English war poets came out of the Georgian tradition, and its Romantic praise for the beauties of nature was capable of powerful effects when inverted to describe the nightmarish landscape of the trenches. The American poets associated with the First World War are not united by a common style. The foremost were Alan Seeger, John Peale Bishop, Archibald MacLeish, and E. E. Cummings, while writing in New York, Wallace Stevens responded to the war in his poem Lettres d'Un Soldat. Seeger was the only one of these figures killed in the war, and nothing that these poets produced on the conflict equaled the achievement in prose of Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms or Cummings's The Enormous Room. In the case of the Second World War, a conflict in...

The Biographical Fallacy

Two exhibits will demonstrate the violence done to these texts when they are approached as versified autobiography. The first, 'Pusan Liberty', by the neglected Beat writer William Wantling, is one of the finest English-language poems to come out of the Korean conflict, comparable to the best First World War poetry in its perception of contending soldiers as alike victims of their respective political and military masters. The poem offers a clear example of the way in which Beat literature's defining note of alienated authenticity is artistically constructed rather than being the result of the author vomiting personal experience direct upon the page.

New York Albert and Charles Boni 1914

Des Imagistes, an anthology of poems by various figures associated with Ezra Pound's London circle before the First World War, was a pivotal volume in a number of ways. The book established some important relationships, and foreshadowed the direction of international modernist poetry while at the same time providing a strategy for a more nativist modernism in the United States. While most of the poems and poets of Des Imagistes were familiar to readers of avant-garde magazines in London, and even to US readers of the Chicago-based Poetry and its rival The Little Review, the appearance of the book in New York galvanized one group of east coast poets. As a source book of imagism and, more broadly, of a nascent modernism, the book had a much fuller impact upon the American scene than it did in London.

Modernist expatriates Ezra Pound and T S Eliot

The changes in consciousness brought about by these new technologies, by a devastating world war, and by crucial developments in the fields of psychology, philosophy, and the natural sciences challenged many of the underlying assumptions of nineteenth-century thought. It was in Europe, and especially in London and Paris, that American poets first came into contact with the new ideas and artistic movements of the early century, such as symbolism, cubism, futurism, and expressionism. From the time Pound first arrived in London in 1908 until the publication of Eliot's The

Twentieth Century American Poetry and Other Arts

Stieglitz's journals Camera Work and 291 were forerunners of a number of journals that appeared around the years of the First World War and which emphasized the mix of the arts, with reproductions of paintings, photographs, and drawings alongside essays, stories, and poems. Sometimes photographs of machines were included in the mix, as in The Soil, which included in its pages photographs of steam engines, suggesting that such engineering feats, like the poems and prose it published, were all modern products of American skill and imagination. Alfred Kreymborg (1883-1966), little remembered for his poetry now, was an important bridge between the arts in New York. He knew many visual artists, started a journal promoting modern music, and was the contact for Ezra Pound to send over a sheaf of imagist poems from London for publication. Kreymborg's impressionistic autobiography, Troubadour (1925), is a valuable record of the iconoclastic atmosphere and creative ferment of the time. An even...


Hulme was born in North Staffordshire in 1883 he died fighting in the First World War (1914 1918) in 1917. His reputation rests on Hulme enlisted in the British army when the First World War began in August 1914. Wounded in 1915, he wrote a series of 'War Notes' arguing against pacifism, and particularly against Bertrand Russell's defence of the pacifist position, which he regarded as proceeding from a mistakenly romantic conception of man as inherently good. During this time, he also wrote an introduction to his translation of Georges Sorel's R flexions sur la violence (Reflections on Violence), which had first been published in 1914. In this Hulme continued his assault on romanticism in philosophy and politics, and argued that human beings needed discipline rather than freedom to achieve anything of value. This was to be his final philosophical position his 'War Notes', his introduction to Sorel, and a collection of articles summarizing his ideas published at the same time as...

The Poetry of Change

One of the most prominent poets of the 1960s, Denise Levertov, was one of the most active politically. Levertov's first volume, published in her native London, had been in the neo-Romantic vein of the time, but upon moving to the United States in the 1950s she turned to the poetry of Williams and Black Mountain College, and later to Stevens and H.D. too, for models. In the 1960s, as the Vietnam War increased in intensity, Levertov's poetry became more overtly political, emphasizing less the nuance and quiet mystical intensity for which it had been admired, and engaging directly the images and consequences of war. For some of her readers and fellow poets this was an inappropriate, even naive, role for poetry. To this charge Levertov, and some of the other poets who wrote and demonstrated against the war, replied that poetry had a duty to address such a vital contemporary issue. One way that Levertov included the war in her poetry was through the notebook form of some of her volumes...

Creeley Robert

He returned to Harvard after the war but soon left without obtaining a degree. In the 1950s Creeley extablished a strong connection with Olson, Cid corman, and other members of the Black Mountain school. He became an instructor of poetry at Black Mountain College and simultaneously earned his B.A. there. He also edited the Black Mountain Review. Creeley later earned an M.A. in English at the University of New Mexico, where he also taught.

Other Postwar Poetry

In the postwar world, one keynote of earlier responses to science and technology, the use of these fields to lend cultural authority to literary experimentation, becomes harder to sustain. The Second World War saw science's claims to detachment com Finally, technologies have profoundly influenced the material production of poetry. If early in the century a gap opened between the luxury of the hand-press and massmarket publishing, in the period after the Second World War the possibility of roneoed, cyclostyled or photocopied work expanded small-press publication. The advent of the CD-Rom and internet has also begun to offer new possibilities not only cheaper and targeted delivery of poetry but also ongoing innovations in the use of multimedia, hypermedia and design.

War Poets

Pound began serious work on The Cantos in 1915, during the second year of the war Eliot first mentioned The Waste Land in a letter of November 1919, a year after the war ended, though the earliest fragments of the poem had been written at least five years before. The First World War shaped both poems substantially it appears in the texts not only in the form of references to the events of 1914-1918, but also as a broader moral framework. Both poems treat the First World War as a symptom of their main subject the disintegration of civilization in the modern world.

Sylvia Plath

We see this strategy even more clearly in the work of Plath, who was in fact a student of Lowell's at Boston University. In the intensely self-dramatizing poems she wrote shortly before her own suicide in February 1963, Plath adopted highly strained metaphors to describe her psychic state. Lady Lazarus, written in the fall of 1962, begins with a comparison between the poem's speaker and the Jews tortured and killed in World War II


Looking back from our post-Holocaust perspective, we might think this anti-Semitism was a product of, and evidence of, fascist sympathy. In truth, it was largely independent of the fascist influence, but the fact that it was maintained during the period of fascist atrocities against Jews is relevant and deplorable. It is often, rightly, pointed out that anti-Semitism was extremely widespread in the early twentieth century. But this is no excuse, and in any case Eliot's and Pound's anti-Semitism was not in the mode of casual prejudice it was a structural component in their ideologies. Pound made Jews a scapegoat in his conspiracy theory of history, identifying them with the banking practices he deplored. Eliot's belief in a homogeneous Christian society led him to state in After Strange Gods that 'reasons of race and religion combine to make any large number of free-thinking Jews undesirable' (1934 20). Although after the Second World War, Eliot regretted 'the whole tone' of After...


Although Plath's poetry draws upon a variety of twentieth-century events, including the Second World War, the bombing of Hiroshima, the medical disaster of thalidomide and general ecological unease, it is the references to the Holocaust the Nazis' extermination of the Jews which have caused the fiercest critical controversy. George Steiner, in a polemical essay on Ariel, at first appeared to praise the poems 'Lady Lazarus' and 'Daddy', which most obviously encode Holocaust references in Ariel (though see also 'Getting There'), by likening them to Picasso's Spanish Civil War painting 'Guernica'. Almost at once, however, he goes on to accuse Plath of a 'subtle larceny' as she was quite unconnected with the events of the Holocaust and of importing images already replete with extreme associations into a poetry which is only personal (Steiner, 1979, p. 189).

Eliot Thomas Stearns

Eliot is one of the 20th century's most important poets, whose work is a part of what is known as the modernist movement in poetry. Critic C. K. Stead has gone so far as to claim that Eliot took part, along with Ezra pound, in invent ing modernism (39). Eliot not only influenced the so-called Lost Generation that followed World War I but may be seen as a herald of the principal tidal movement of poetry in English in the twentieth century (Stead 4-5). Eliot's early influences were French, including philosopher Henri Bergson, while his poetic maturation came as a result of reading Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Tradition in Literature (1899) and the poetry of the French character, revealing the psychological complexity of culture through what amounted to studies and portraits of people. The poems in Prufrock largely survey characters of the decorous set, such as Miss Nancy Ellicott of Cousin Nancy and Miss Helen Slingsby of Aunt Helen. By focusing on character, Eliot...

Everson William

Born in Sacramento and raised in California's San Joaquin Valley, Everson's early life was rural and modest. He began to write poetry in high school, and after graduation he attended Fresno State College, dropping out in 1935 to devote himself to writing, growing grapes, and learning the printer's trade. A conscientious objector, Everson spent World War II in a civilian public-service camp. After the war he moved to Berkeley, where, championed by Rexroth, he gathered increasing recognition for his poetry. In 1948, after experiencing a religious epiphany during a Christmas mass, he converted to Catholicism and three years later was accepted as a lay brother in the Dominican order, receiving the name Brother Antoninus, the name under which he would write until unable to accept the condition of celibacy he publicly resigned from the order in late 1969. From 1971 until his retirement in 1981, he was poet in residence at University of California, Santa Cruz. His poems are collected in...

Matthew Campbell

Before he published his translation of Virgil's Aeneid in 1952, Cecil Day Lewis saw out the 1930s with a version of the Georgics. It was published in 1940, in the early days of the Second World War, a poem of retreat written in a besieged Britain. In the 'Dedicatory Stanzas' (to Stephen Spender) which preface his version, Day Lewis confronts Shelley's declaration of the part that the poet plays in history and asks the question of one of his own most famous lyrics, 'where are the war poets ' A poet such as Day Lewis feels that he can no longer allow himself to sing, in Dryden's version of Virgil, of 'arms and the man' in 1952, his version of the Aeneid opens as flatly as he can manage 'I tell about war and the hero . . .'. For many, most notably Theodor Adorno, the horrors of the twentieth century leave little room for lyric, let alone the martial concerns of epic. Yet throughout the century, poets continually worried over poetry's response in terms of genre as much as subject matter...

The New York school

The most charismatic and influential member of the New York school -up to the time of his accidental death in 1966 - was Frank O'Hara. After serving in the navy during World War II, O'Hara attended Harvard, where he met both Ashbery and Koch. The late 1940s was a golden age of poetry at Harvard (among the other poets studying there at the time were Robert Bly, Robert Creeley, Donald Hall, and Adrienne Rich) and its heightened

Stephen Matterson

The loosening of social roles during the Second World War. This was the decade characterized by the build-up of nuclear weaponry, the Cold War, McCarthyism, the reinforcement of gender roles in which women were situated (during the postwar 'baby boom') as wives and mothers in the (suburban) domestic sphere, while men 'in the grey flannel suit' were uniformed as corporate entities. The 'tranquillized Fifties' Lowell calls the decade in 'Memories of West Street and Lepke' and the sharply double-edged phrase indicates the demand for uniformity on the surface of American life and suggests the cost of that conformity, cost leading to public and private stresses that demanded treatment in the form of the tranquillizer, 'tamed by Miltown .

HD Hilda Doolittle

What for many readers and critics is a remarkable creative renaissance began when H.D. spent the years of the Second World War in London. At this time she wrote a memoir, Tribute to Freud, of the figure who became both mentor and male antagonist to her, and the autobiographical prose work The Gift (1941-3) which concerns her family history and Moravian origins. But most significant is the Trilogy (1942-4), a long poem consisting of The Walls Do Not Fall, Tribute to the Angels, and The Flowering of the Rod. Here the trials of the London Blitz are paralleled to the history of ancient Egypt, while the poem synthesizes the Judaeo-Christian tradition and the Egyptian and Greek pagan traditions in its assertion of faith that love and hope will bring resurrection out of the ruins. In the poem's final lines the Magi present their gifts in acknowledgment of this hope.

Rand Brandes

Although Crow is an experiment in 'style' for Hughes, Crow is first and foremost a mytho-religious poem. Crow's poetic mainframe is supported by three mythic operating systems the global, the national and the personal. At the core of Crow is the wound - three victims of suicide (Hughes's wife, Sylvia Plath in 1963, and Hughes's partner, Assia Wevill and their two-year-old daughter, Shura, in 1969) his mother's death in 1969, and his father's First World War 'shell-shock'. These personal tragedies, just under the surface of all the poems and occasionally erupting in a few, such as 'The Lovepet', 'A Bedtime Story' and 'Crow Improvises', compound the volume's sense of hopelessness and confusion. However, like Eliot or Yeats, Hughes avoids the confessional and disparaging by translating individual suffering into a universal experience through myth in Crow.

Dorn Edward 133

In On the Debt My Mother Owed to Sears Roebuck from Hands Up (1964), a poem of place as well as personal and political implications, Dorn connects domestic economies to those of the Second World War. Arrested opportunity and unwitting complicity are suggested in Dorn's description of his mother as part of that stay at home army, one who necessarily but

David Goldie

Leavis began his epoch-defining book, New Bearings in English Poetry (1932), with the confident assertion that 'poetry matters little to the modern world'. Even allowing for Leavis's deliberate provocativeness and the subtlety of his subsequent argument this would seem, on the face of it, a little overstated. For Leavis was writing at a time in which poetry was experiencing a popularity that it will probably never exceed. The reasons for this popularity can be traced back to the First World War and to the needs of an educated, literate population, exposed to a print (though not yet a broadcast) mass media, for a language adequate to the unprecedented experiences of modern war. The sheer bulk of the outpourings of verse that appeared in newspapers, popular songs, and in the memorial volumes of the work of soldier poets, on commemorative cards and war memorials, that was spoken and sung in remembrance ceremonials, testifies to a widespread belief in the ritual and consolatory...


The poetry in these earlier volumes often protests against the injustice of the limited lives imposed upon her characters by poverty and segregation. Gay Chaps at the Bar, from 1945, is a series of 12 sonnets based in part upon letters that Brooks received from black soldiers fighting in the Second World War in the segregated US army. The Lovers of the Poor (1960) recounts the patronizing distaste felt by The Ladies from the Ladies' Better

Editors Preface

In England, the period from about 1830 until World War I is normally distinguished by historians as 'Victorian' in honour of the longest-reigning monarch in British history, who dominated the era as a kind of cultural icon. These years witnessed an extraordinary flowering of literary culture, comparable in many respects to what occurred under England's other long-lived and remarkably influential female monarch, Queen Elizabeth I. Despite the virtual absence of significant drama produced for the stage during most of the Victorian era, every other genre flourished. (Much great dramatic literature did in fact emerge, but not in the form of stage plays.) The productivity of poets, novelists and writers of self-consciously artistic prose non-fiction remains, from the vantage of the early twenty-first century, breathtaking.

Eliot And Bradley

Eliot's critique of Bergson in his Harvard essay shows the early influence of the philosopher who would become the topic of Eliot's doctoral dissertation the English idealist, F.H. Bradley (1846-1924). In 1914 Eliot was awarded a fellowship to work on his dissertation in Oxford under the tuition of Harold Joachim, one of Bradley's disciples. The dissertation, which focussed on Bradley's 1893 book, Appearance and Reality, was completed under the title 'Experience and the Objects of Knowledge in the Philosophy of F.H. Bradley' and sent to Harvard in 1916, by which time Eliot had moved to London and begun to publish his poetry with the help of Pound. Harvard approved the dissertation Eliot's dissertation supervisor called it 'the work of an expert' (Jain 1992 30). However, Eliot did not return to Harvard for the necessary oral examination of his dissertation (it was, after all, the middle of the First World War), and the degree of PhD was not awarded. When the dissertation was published...

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