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The reading nation and the writerly nation in 1820

During the period between 1770 and 1835, there were more than 4,000 writers producing poetry, of whom about 900 were women, as J. R. de Jackson's bibliographies have suggested.6 1820 saw the publication of around 200 new volumes or editions of poetry (57 by women), hardly any of which would be familiar to scholars today. Since the canon of Romantic verse has been smaller than that in other periods, there is something illustrative in simply listing the diversity of verse in 1820, even at the risk of appearing metromaniacal the list, gesturing towards the encyclopedic, is a feature of the pantheon. Where do writers such as Wordsworth and Keats figure in this outpouring of verse In defining what he calls the reading nation, 9 William St. Clair has argued that during, say, Wordsworth's lifetime there was as yet no canon of Romantic poetry, as copyright law meant that access to works by living poets, initially printed in small numbers, was quite restricted. He does note that there was a...

The Writer Richard Wilbur 1976

One of the most praised poems in Richard Wilbur's collection The Mind-Reader, The Writer is both typical of Wilbur's scrupulous metaphors and unusual in its relaxed form. Wilbur is known for his careful and adroit formalism, so this poem seems unusual, as it neither rhymes nor adheres to a meter. Wilbur's tercets (three-line stanzas) are in a loose or accentual meter (moving freely between iambic and anapestic feet), with three, five, and three beats per line (see prosody and free verse). This is worth noting, against the com The Writer is more typical of Wilbur's work, however, in its strict and careful attention to metaphor. The poem opens by describing Wilbur's daughter, tentatively typing a story, as if writing meant setting out on a sea voyage Her room is like the prow of a boat, the linden-tree outside toss like ocean-waves, the typewriter's clatter sounds like an anchor-chain dragged over the ship's edge. However, accuracy compels Wilbur to reject this first comparison in favor...

Notes on Contributors

Isobel Grundy is a Professor Emerita at the University of Alberta. She is author of Samuel Johnson and the Scale of Greatness (1986), Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Comet of the Enlightenment (1999), and (with Virginia Blain and Patricia Clements) The Feminist Companion to Literature in English Women Writers from the Middle Ages to the Present (1990). She is a joint author of the forthcoming electronic history of women's writing in the British Isles produced by the Orlando Project (director Patricia Clements). David Hopkins is Professor of English Literature at the University of Bristol. Among his recent publications are (as author) Writers and Their Work John Dry den (2004) and (as editor), with Paul Hammond, volume 5 of The Poems of John Dryden (2005) and, with Stuart Gillespie, volume 3 of The Oxford History of Literary Translation in English (2005). Kathryn R. King is Professor of English at the University of Montevallo in Alabama. She is author of Jane Barker, Exile (2000) and...

Chronology Significant Dates and Events 19002000

1950 Gwendolyn Brooks becomes the first African American writer to win a Pulitzer Prize, for Annie Allen US population 150 million Korean War (1950-3) begins F. O. Matthiessen re-edits The Oxford Book of American Verse he includes Eliot, H.D., Stevens, and Williams, and expands the selection by Pound, but includes no black poets

Varieties Of English Usage

English poets ever since the fifteenth century, and more clearly than ever today, there has been a privileged dialect, a standard English, to which any writer wishing to command the attention of a wide educated audience has naturally turned. This standard English cuts across the boundaries of regional dialects, and is, in fact, international American, Indian, Australian, and British writers make use of what, except for minor features of local currency, may be considered the same standard dialect. In the history of English literature since the Middle Ages, only one poet of unquestioned greatness, Robert Burns, has chosen to write his best work outside the standard dialect. Other poets, notably Rudyard Kipling and Thomas Hardy, have made extensive use of dialect in 'character' poems. More central than dialect to the present topic is the diversity of English usage not according to the background of the speaker or writer, but according to the situation in which he is prompted to use...

Tradition and the Rise of the Universities

The more radical modernist writers still kept on writing, although publishing opportunities were fewer and their work often appeared in limited editions. Frost, Stevens, Langston Hughes, and Moore had commercial publishers H.D.'s work was privately printed, but Pound and Williams had to wait until the end of the 1930s for James Laughlin to found New Directions before they found a regular US publisher. At the beginning of the decade objectivism reformulated some of the principles of imagism, and the movement found a publishing outlet when George Oppen started the Objectivist Press. The movement advocated precision and a careful attention to the function of language that produced a line of American poetry, including the work of Louis Zukofsky, Oppen, Charles Reznikoff, and Charles Olson, whose achievement is still debated by some literary critics.

The Anxiety Of Influence

Even a cursory glance through the most well-known works of literary criticism by Eliot, Hulme and Pound will yield a series of statements that implicitly and explicitly oppose modernist poetry to its recent predecessors. In his 'Prolegomena' (1912), for example, Pound contrasts the achievements of the nineteenth century, 'a rather blurry, messy sort of a period, a rather sentimentalistic, mannerish sort of a period', with his hopes for twentieth-century poetry, which will, he predicts, 'move against poppy-cock, it will be harder and saner, . . . austere, direct, free from emotional slither' (1960 11, 12). In 'Romanticism and Classicism' (written c. 1911 12), Hulme uses a very similar set of terms, comparing the 'dry and hard' poetry of the modern classicist with the over-emotional 'damp' poetry of the outmoded romantic (1994 66), and that comparison underlies one of Eliot's most famous pronouncements, from 'Tradition and the Individual Talent' (1919) 'Poetry is not a turning loose of...

Chapman George 15601634 Little

Chapman also wrote numerous dramas and was first mentioned in connection with the theater in records related to the performance of Blind Beggar of Alexandria by the Admiral's Men. The theater manager Philip Henslowe noted Chapman's efforts in that production. Francis Meres, the clergyman who helped date Shakespeare's early plays and who published a record of contemporary writers, praised Chapman's comedy and tragedy. His plays included The Gentleman Usher (ca. 1602), All Fools (1599 or 1604), Monsieur D'Olive (1604), Sir Giles Goosecap, Knight (ca. 1604), Bussy D'Ambois (1604), The Widow's Tears (ca. 1605), and May Day (1609). His comedies focused on the series of human errors made popular by BEN JoNSoN. With Jonson and John Marston, Chapman wrote Eastward Ho (1605) for the Children of the Queen's Revels, a child acting group. He earned Jonson's praise, placing him among a select few, but was imprisoned for a time in the tower of London by James I, who found Chapman's satire on the...

The United States Needs Poets

Though political freedom had been established for decades, America was still a long way from gaining cultural independence. Even Whitman admitted to growing up reading Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron, two of nineteenth-century America's most popular writers. Charles Dickens was all the rage in the 1840s he even came to America in 1842. And the death of the poet laureate William Wordsworth in 1850 inspired a rush of new American interest in his work.

Corso Gregorio Nunzio 19302001

Corso was born in New York City's Greenwich Village. Abandoned as a small child, he was raised in a series of foster homes until he was 11, when he went to live briefly with his birth father. He was a runaway and a street kid, first arrested in early adolescence for stealing food. Corso's prison career included reform school, New York's infamous jail nicknamed the Tombs , and a three-year term for armed robbery when he was only 17. Although his formal education ended after elementary school, Corso used his time in Clinton Prison to educate himself reading voraciously from the prison library, he absorbed an eclectic assortment of writers, which established an idiosyncratic foundation for his own work. He also studied an old dictionary, which might explain an unusually dated language in some of his poems. Although widely hailed in the American intellectual underground, Corso never received any major literary awards. or art. In Corso, as in the work of other Beat writers, there is the...

Hypertext And Cybertext

Company called Eastgate created a computer program for composing electronic literature called Storyspace. It enables writers of prose and poetry to develop writings containing links and graphics without coding. Early Eastgate poets, such as Stephanie Strickland (True North 1998 ) and Robert Kendall (A Life Set for Two, 1996 ), continue to write hypertext poetry. Many poets now possess the technical skills, machinery, and software, or they collaborate with programmers and designers, to create hypertext poetry.

William Shakespeare 15641616

A native of Stratford-on Avon in England, William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway in 1582 and established himself as an actor and writer in London by the 1590s. It is believed that his playwrighting career began in 1591 with Henry VI, perhaps in collaboration with another writer. Othello first appeared in 1604, only a few years after Hamlet and a few months before King Lear. In all, Shakespeare is credited with having written over thirty plays. Though a prolific writer for the royal Court, he wrote plays that appealed to all classes of Elizabethan society. While his dramas were abridged and rewritten during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, by the Victorian Age his texts had been largely restored to their original versions. He died on his birthday in 1616 and was buried in Stratford.

Langston Hughes 19021967

Langston Hughes was the most influential and innovative of the writers associated with the Harlem Renaissance, and his prolific output included 15 volumes of poetry, as well as novels, short stories, plays, children's books, biographies, two autobiographies, histories, opera librettos, essays, articles, radio scripts, and songs for musicals. He also translated works from Spanish and French, and edited several anthologies. Hughes was the first black writer to make a living entirely from his writing, and a vital inspiration and mentor for many young black writers of the 1960s. Racial Mountain. In this essay Hughes describes the cultural pressures that he felt black writers faced to conform to white norms, and to see writing about black customs and black artistic expression as inferior subject matter to the white equivalents. He goes on to defend the characteristic use in his own poems of language and forms derived from jazz, blues, and other musical forms - an interest that he was to...

Midcentury Translations

Latter that his portrait of Atys a priest of Cybele struck with madness by this goddess, abounds with some of the strongest strokes of passion, and true poetic enthusiasm, of any thing the Roman poesy has left us (ii. 900n.). This alignment of a poetic with a true enthusiasm reappears in Beattie's notes to his translation of Virgil's Eclogue 4 (1760), a favorite poem for those seeking evidence of noble heathens, classical writers with proto-Christian attitudes. Whether or not Virgil's boy savior is plausibly anything more than Soloninus, son of Pollio, Virgil's panegyric to him matters most for the spirit of prophetic enthusiasm that breathes through it (l. 1n.). Connecting enthusiasm, poetry, and prophecy, Beattie would be seconded by many poets of the later eighteenth century who gradually weaned themselves from Homer and Virgil and foiled Pope's strategy of marrying enthusiasm to the classical canon. Throughout the eighteenth century, a poetic enthusiasm struggled to separate...

Elizabeth I 15331603 queen of England

Ruler of England for 45 years, Elizabeth had a profound effect on literature produced while she was queen. A writer herself, her personal literary production is primarily letters and speeches written for various political purposes such as addressing Parliament or negotiating with foreign powers. She also wrote at least 15 poems. The stability of her long reign and her emphasis on courtly behavior that included the ability to write creatively contributed to the immense literary production of this period, some of which focused on her. As queen, Elizabeth faced several great challenges. She had to determine national religious practice to decide which, if any, of her suitors to marry to negotiate a foreign policy that kept England from the threat of war, especially with Catholic nations that might support Mary, Queen of Scots in her effort to claim the English crown and to maintain order within her own borders. Because each of these courses had national ramifications, these decisions...

Enslin Theodore 1925 Theodore

(Ted) Enslin is one of the most prolific poets of the late 20th century. His work has often been associated with the objectivist and black mountain schools. His lyrical verse, however, although esteemed by writers and critics alike, is not widely known because Enslin is not a self-promoter, has no academic affiliation, and has published almost exclusively with small poetry presses. Enslin's professional obscurity also underscores his generous spirit, which infuses each poem with uncompromising singularity and intimacy. He writes neither for a partisan audience nor for a literary market trend, but simply for the sheer pleasure of discovery that poetry discloses between writer and reader, which he describes as the only joy in writing (Taggart Truck 118). Influenced by the works of Cid corman, George oppen, William Carlos WILLIAMS, and Louis zukofsky, Enslin's writing has also been compared to that of Robert creeley, Larry eigner, Lorine niedecker, and Charles olson.

William Carlos Williams and the modernist American scene

William Carlos Williams was a unique figure in American poetry. A practicing family doctor who continued to care for his patients throughout his poetic career, Williams grounded his poems in a direct engagement both with the object world and with the contemporary social environment ofthe region where he lived and worked the area around Rutherford and Pater-son, New Jersey. As he continued to refine his craft throughout the first half ofthe century and into the beginning ofthe second half, Williams produced a body of poetry as impressive as that of any other American writer of his time. It is a poetry that celebrates the local American scene while remaining determinedly experimental in its form and language. Williams was not alone in attempting to find a poetic language appropriate to the experience of modern America. During the period from 1910 to 1925 American poetry experienced a resurgence that was unprecedented in its breadth and intensity, as a steady stream of emerging new...

Robert Lowell 19171977

Lowell did not publish another book until the ground-breaking Life Studies in 1959. Through that decade he continued to have bouts of hospitalization that had begun with a nervous breakdown in 1949, and the introspection occasioned by his treatments contributed to a growing dissatisfaction with the formal surface of his poetry. This dissatisfaction was compounded by a correspondence Lowell began with William Carlos Williams, and by his experience on a west coast reading tour in 1957 of hearing Allen Ginsberg reading Howl. In Life Studies Lowell confronts much more directly than in his earlier work, and in a style much looser than he had written in before, his family background, and his own troubles as a writer and husband (in 1949 he had married writer Elizabeth Hardwick). But as well as this autobiographical element, which led M. L. Rosenthal to coin the term Confessional for such self-revealing poetry, Lowell successfully maintains the ambitious historical sweep that he had sought...

Ferlinghetti Lawrence 1919

His publisher in the future was to be James Laughlin at New Directions, an avant-garde publishing house on the East Coast as City Lights was on the West (see poetry presses). Through Kenneth rexroth, Ferlinghetti met other artists and writers, with whom he became part of the san francisco renaissance. Among his notable editorial decisions at City Lights were to publish Allen ginsberg's howl and Other Poems, which resulted in an infamous and successfully defended obscenity trial, Ginsbergs kaddish and Other Poems, and Gregory corsos Gasoline, each of a major work of midcentury American poetry Ferlinghetti strove to extend the City Lights list beyond beat and San Francisco Renaissance works, and therefore he also published translations of new poetry from around the world. His poetry consistently considers his personal and public concerns identity and society Ferlinghetti, like many poets of the postwar period, discovered the therapeutic value of...

Addressed To His Daughters During His Imprisonment

UPON a certain festival, says Ebn Khocan, a contemporary writer, during the confinement of Motammed, he was waited upon by his children, who came to receive his blessing, and to offer up their prayers for his welfare. Amongst these some were females, and their appearance was truly deplorable. They were naturally beauteous as the moon, but, from the rags which covered them, they seemed like the moon under an eclipse their feet were bare and bleeding, and every trace of their former splendour was completely effaced. At this

Lecture Twenty Seven Whitman and the Making of an American Bard

Scope In lecture 27 we are introduced to Walt Whitman, the writer who marks the birth of American poetry with his compendium of poems in free verse, a work that breaks rank with the rhyme and meter of traditional poetry. An enemy of censorship, aristocracy, and parochialism, Whitman invents a world that embraces all, a pantheistic appeal for tolerance and democratic unity.

Myself as Whitmans Nineteenth Century American Hero

Scope We consider in lecture 28 how Whitman is a throwback to the bards of the ancient world, a messenger of political and cultural information. A bold experimenter in form and content, Whitman's free verse disdains the traditional forms used by Shakespeare and Blake. Whitman is one of the first writers to insist that the stuff of daily life anyone's life is fit for poetic contemplation. 1. Summarize what is meant in the lecture that Whitman is the most fraternal writer in American literature.

James Dickey 19231997

James Dickey was born in Atlanta, Georgia. After a year at Clemson College he enlisted in the air force and was posted to the Pacific. Upon his return he studied at Vanderbilt, graduating with an MA in 1950, and having determined to be a writer. In that same year he had his first important publication when The Sewanee Review accepted his poem The Shark at the Window. He began teaching at Rice University with the initial intention of finishing his doctorate, but was recalled to the air force during the Korean War -although, contrary to some of his own later accounts, he stayed in the US, working at a number of military bases in the south. Dickey had a tendency to inflate biographical details, exaggerating his flying exploits in the Pacific in the Second World War, for example. Upon his return to Rice, Dickey struggled to publish his poetry and creative prose, and lost interest in completing his doctoral dissertation. Dickey's poems in these years mirror the formal vein of Allen Tate,...

Henry The Minstrel See Blind Hary Henryson Robert ca 1425ca 1500

By the 20th century, Robert Henryson was considered the most well-known and critically important of the Middle Scots poets, a group which usually contains Henryson, James I of Scotland, William Dunbar, and Gavin Douglas, along with some other minor names. However, Henryson's birth and death dates are unclear mainly because he was neither a well-known nor a popular writer while alive. Indeed, while most scholars' best guess is that his major period of production was around 1475, it can only be said with certainty that his work was in circulation sometime during the last half of the 15th century. Henryson lived in Dunfer-mline, in Fife, and he was master of the grammar school in the Benedictine abbey there. Dunbar's Lament for the Makaris was published in 1508 and refers to Henryson's death, causing scholars to estimate it to around 1506.

Lecture Thirty One Dickinson and the Poetry of Consciousness

Scope In Lecture 31 we acknowledge Dickinson as one of our finest observers of the natural world, a writer who translates the natural into the human realm with uncommon shrewdness. But, as Dickinson herself suggests, we construct what we see as much as we observe it. In the act of watching, we translate the world with our most imaginative vehicle language.

From the Harlem Renaissance to the Black Arts movement

The history of African American poetry in the twentieth century can be divided into three generational moments the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and early 1930s, the post-Renaissance poetry of the 1940s and 1950s, and the Black Arts movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The Harlem Renaissance, part of a more general New Negro movement in the United States, was the first major flowering of creative activity by African American writers, artists, and musicians in the twentieth century. In the 1940s and 1950s, there was a revival of African American verse, led by Melvin Tolson, Gwendolyn Brooks, and Robert Hayden. Finally, a third wave of African American poetry emerged in the late 1960s with the Black Arts movement or Black Aesthetic. Infused with a newly defined racial and political consciousness, poets such as Amiri Baraka, June Jordan, Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Audre Lorde, Ishmael Reed, and Michael S. Harper produced poetry that was more clearly militant in its message and rawer in...

Pleasures Perfection and Politics

Akenside's binding together of truth and good with beauty seems to anticipate Keats's famous conclusion to the Ode on a Grecian Urn. More immediately significant here is the description of the natural workings of the three concepts, which live together (and, apparently, in each other). This once again binds up the philosophy of the poem appreciation of beauty is not an isolated act, but part of a linking chain that confirms the virtues of a harmonious, ordered self. That our world is also a dark world, given Akenside's splendid descriptions of its apparently unlimited benevolence, pulls the reader up a little. Akenside's picture of the divine wisdom of nature seems pantheistic his metaphoric gestures toward an endless self-improvement reaching for the beautiful and the true are neoplatonic the world is naturally dark in comparison with the ideal. Such a combination reminds us that he is not offering the sustained and consistent beliefs of a doctrinal treatise. But the darkness of the...

Hirsch Edward 1950 Edward

Hirsch has said that someone else's experiences make available your own feelings (Suarez 63). He applies this philosophy by taking on personae that range from blue-collar workers to well-known writers. In On Love (1998), for instance, Hirsch speaks in formal verse through such figures as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Denis Diderot, and Tristan Tzara, a diversity that illustrates the breadth of his learning. These poems also reveal the poets own voice behind the masks. They are, as James Longenbach notes, not so much spoken by different figures as written out of an overwhelming sympathy for different sensibilities, foreign selves (160).

James Merrill 19261995

Merrill's undergraduate studies at Amherst College were interrupted for a year in 1944 when he served in the US army. He graduated in 1947 having written an undergraduate thesis on Marcel Proust - a writer who was to have influence upon the reflective, meditative mode of Merrill's mature poetry in which, as in the lines above, time and death are frequent themes. Following his graduation, Merrill taught occasionally at colleges and universities, but thanks to his inherited wealth he was able largely to live a life of writing and traveling, eventually publishing more than 25 volumes of verse and proving himself a master of a wide variety of poetic forms.

Lecture Thirty Five Robert Frost The Wisdom of the People

Scope We examine in Lecture 35 Robert Frost, the people's poet, another in a long line of American nature writers. A great aphorist like Shakespeare, Frost's phrases have entered the language without attribution but with all the authority of folk wisdom. Though familiar as a cherished icon of rural Americana, Frost is a more ambivalent and complex poet than he at first seems.

Strophe Fancys Gift and Chosen Poets

Arriving at either of these paraphrases takes considerable time and energy, and neither will seem fully right to many readers. The immediate sources of difficulty and ambiguity are diction, allusion, and syntax. The first two are related, as Collins not only refers to an incident from The Faerie Queene but uses exotic diction to suggest Spenser's language. Several words in the strophe were already archaic or at least uncommon in the 1740s, just as many of Spenser's were in the 1590s. Eighteenth-century writers, for example, did not often use aright as an adverb, girdle, cest, and zone for belt and sash, or turney for tournament. While many of Collins's contemporaries would readily invert normal word order when composing poetry, thus arriving at a phrase like the magic Girdle wear for wear the magic girdle, they would not normally omit to before an infinitive verb (hope. . . wear, instead of hope to . . . wear).

Topics for Further Exploration

Tone the relationship of a writer to his her subject. Born in Reading, Pennsylvania, Stevens studied French and German at Harvard. After he completed law school, a legal partnership failed and he struggled to make a living with several law firms. He joined the Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company in 1916 and in 1934 became vice president. Stevens's business and literary lives never intersected, business associates having little idea that their colleague was a writer of renown. Stevens's first book of poems, Harmonium, appeared in 1923 later volumes include The Man With the Blue Guitar (1937), Parts of the World (1942), and The Auroras of Autumn (1950). He won the 1954 Pulitzer Prize for his collected poems.

Pope And The Problem Of Pleasure For Sale

In her Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), Mary Wollstonecraft repeatedly quotes from Alexander Pope's Of the Characters of Women, agreeing with the poet that women's love of pleasure and sexual power determines the course of their lives forbidden by men to direct their energies toward an important social purpose, women of the middle and upper classes immerse themselves in gallantry, ornamentation, and other pursuits that extensive leisure makes possible. Wollstonecraft goes on to declare that people of rank and fortune resemble leisured women not only in being preoccupied with self-display and amusements, but also in being exempt from the need to exert themselves in productive, character-building employments. A third category of effeminate, useless citizens, however, includes male writers like Pope himself A king is always a king, and a woman always a woman. His authority and her sex ever stand between them and rational converse. . . . And a wit is always a wit, might be...

London David Nutt 1914

Following North of Boston Frost stayed with the themes and form he had found there. Pound and the other modernists soon lost patience and wrote him off as belonging to the past, but to the American public Frost came to embody the essential American poet. He went on to be feted by Congress and presidents, his reputation survived critical and political fashions, and he remained an irritant to the modernist poets throughout his career. He rejected their call for free verse, and for the urban, cosmopolitan subject matter of writers like Pound and Eliot. Perhaps it was no accident that the first poem of his next book following North of Boston began with The Road Not Taken - Frost had decided what road he wanted to take.

Sedley Sir Charles 16391701

The dashing and scandalous John Wilmot, second earl of Rochester, proved one of Sedley's favorite companions. The editor Charles Wells Moulton includes many comments about Sedley in his second volume of The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors (1959). The famous diarist Samuel Pepys wrote of the late frolick and debauchery of Sedley and others who ran up and down all the night, almost naked through the streets and at last fighting and being beat by the watch and clapped up all night, adding that King Charles II always defended him. Sir George Eth-eredge praised Sedley, writing Few of our plays can boast of more wit than I have heard him speak at a supper. Some barren sparks have found fault with what he has formerly done, only because the fairness of the soil has produced so big a crop. While Alexander Pope noted, Sedley is a very insipid writer, he

Lecture Forty Six Daniel Defoes Plain Style and the New World Order

Progenitor of the English plain style, a fitting format for a writer dedicated to the middle class virtues of economy and measurement. Though of limited success for some critics, the novel is capable of examining not only the ups and downs of life on the street, but the interior state of a London ruffian seemingly at the mercy of fate.

Personism OHaras Poetic Manifesto

In essence O'Hara is proposing that poems are a medium between two people. They are not just words. Whitman shared this idea that poetry could be something physical, a connective device between the reader and writer. Poetry then can unite people. O'Hara's work, though, has a certain flippancy or ironic detachment. How, for instance, can you have a manifesto for organic, spontaneous writing

New York Alfred A Knopf 1923

At Harvard as an undergraduate Stevens came under the influence of the aesthetic movement, which saw language as decoration and a dandified persona as a way of engaging the world with imagination and humor. Such an attitude permitted effects of irony and incongruity, and for such writers signaled a separation from the confident seriousness of the Romantic poets. Important influences upon the Harvard group were the late nineteenth-century French poets Baudelaire and Laforgue. Although Stevens went on to develop this attitude in ways that are distinctly modernist, it appears in Harmonium in a number of comic figures, and in the precious, playfully self-conscious language of many of the poems. Three of the titles are in French, Cy Est Pourtraicte, Madame Ste Ursule, et Les Unze Mille Vierges, Homunculus et La Belle toile, and Le Monocle de Mon Oncle. In the last named the narrator is himself a dandified figure, his playful language exploring a range of emotions about facing the onset of...

Erosgenealogies as a proof for a complex and noncultic origin

The great number of different parentages invented for Eros by the lyric poets also have to be interpreted as attempts to mythologize Eros and integrate him into the sphere of the Olympian deities (see Appendix, Fig. 2).135 I suggest that the diverse genealogies are poetic responses to the various influences and constituents which shaped the image of Eros. The different genealogies also reflect the idea of Eros' participation in the cosmogonic process on the one hand, and his identity as a personification representing an aspect of Aphrodite's sphere on the other. As such he came closer to the Olympian divinities and was thus related to the goddess of love (see Plates 6, 7 and 8).136 The contexts in which Eros' various pedigrees are transmitted show that in the Greek world poets and prose writers traditionally invent ad-hoc parentages of a god according to different contexts and genres.137 The variety of genealogies of Eros can be categorized as no parentage , cosmic parents or Olympian...

Conversions I Eliot And Christianity

'It is proverbially easier to destroy than to construct', Eliot begins his 1928 essay 'The Humanism of Irving Babbitt', 'when a writer is skilful in destructive criticism, the public is satisfied with that. If he has no constructive philosophy, it is not demanded if he has, it is overlooked. This is especially true when we are concerned with critics of society' (1980 471). Here Eliot sums up the problem he faced as he turned to social criticism in the 1920s the philosophy he had developed in reference to Babbitt, Hulme and Maurras had provided tools for the diagnosis of society's problems, but not for their cure. The classicist's pessimistic view of human nature gave little hope that individuals could solve the problems of post-war civilization by themselves.

Ransom John Crowe 18881974

As an essayist, teacher, and poet, John Crowe Ransom was a major influence on American poetry, southern writing, and criticism. He was a founding member of the fugitive agrarian school, which included, among others, Allen tate, Robert Penn warren, and Donald davidson. The Fugitives and the imagists school were the two most influential forces in American poetry in the early part of the 20th century. The imagists tended toward experimentation and individualism, while the Fugitives tended toward classicism and traditionalism. Often Ransom is called a minor poet, since his poetic output was small however, he is an important figure in the Southern Renaissance, which included such writers as Warren, William Faulkner, and Eudora Welty. As a literary critic, Ransom coined the term New Criticism, which came to describe the dominant critical practice in American universities in the 20 th century, and he was otherwise an influential critic and teacher, counting among his students poets Randall...

New York New Directions 1948

Pound was a controversial figure when he was flown to Washington for his trial, and some influential people protested the judicial finding that he was unfit to stand trial because of insanity, although many important writers came to his aid too. Pound had begun his thirteen and a half years in St. Elizabeths Hospital and the controversy was dying down a little when in 1949 a committee associated with the Library of Congress, and including Robert Lowell, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, and Robert Penn Warren, awarded The Pisan Cantos the first Bollingen Prize for Poetry. The volume had been published on July 20 the previous year. Despite protests and pressure, and questions in Congress, the committee defended its choice and stuck to it, arguing that the poet's political beliefs, the anti-Semitic material in parts of the poem, and the poet being in effect a prisoner of the government did not detract from its achievement as the outstanding poem among those judged. Pound received a much-needed...

Riding Jackson Laura 19011991

Laura Riding was one of the central women writers of the period of modernism, because of her contributions as a poet, her collaborations with Robert Graves on literary-critical works, and their editorial work on the journal Epilogue (1935-37), as well as for her writings on poetry's form and function. During Riding's early poetic career, she was a member of the fugitive agrarian school of poets, who praised her poetry's ability to avoid the sentimentality of contemporary female poets, such as Edna St. Vincent millay. Riding's own poetic quest was to find language that illuminated what she called truth, which, in her own poems, included shunning a reliance on analogy, metaphor, and sensuous language. After the publication of her Collected Poems (1938), her meditations on poetry's inability to contain truth ultimately led her to stop writing poems altogether. Although Riding herself was uncomfortable with poets naming her as a literary precursor, such poets as Graves, W H. auden, and...

Shakespeare William 15641616

Around 1592, Shakespeare traveled to London to begin a writing career. Most critics conclude that he spent time as both a writer and an actor with Lord Pembroke's Men before 1592. Some time after 1593, a group of seven men, including Shakespeare, started a theater company called Lord Chamberlain's Men later, after 1603, they became the King's Men under James VI I. Shakespeare wrote most of the plays for the company, averaging two plays per year. Many of these were produced during his lifetime.

Rukeyser Muriel 19131980 Muriel

Rukeyser's poetry shares the ethics of the proletarian, left writers of the 1930s, with whom her early work was associated, and the formal and stylistic experimentation of her contemporaries in literary modernism her poetics also echoes the work of what is perhaps Rukeyser's single most significant literary influence, the 19th-century American poet Walt Whitman. Rukeyser's earliest poetry also shows the influence of W H. AUDEN, while as a Jewish woman social activist poet in New York, Lola Ridge is another important predecessor. Late in her career, Rukeyser's work inspired a new generation of women poets searching for a distinctly female voice, female language, among them Adrienne rich and Anne sexton, who famously referred to her as Muriel, Mother of everyone (qtd. in Levi xvii).

The Ruin Of The Barmecidesp 111

Jaafer's abilities were formed to adorn every situation independent of his hereditary virtues, he was the most admired writer and the most eloquent speaker of his age and during the time he was in office, he displayed at once the accuracy of a man of business and the comprehensive ideas of a statesman. But the brilliancy of Jaafer's talents Ben Shonah Power and wealth, said tUpwarfptable old man, were but a loan with which fortune entrusted us we ought to be thankful that we have enjoyeW blessings so long and we ought to console ourselves for their loss by the reflection that our fate will afford a perpetual example to others of their instability. The fall of the house of Barmec was considered as a general calamity. By their courtesy, their abilities, and their virtues, they had endeared themselves to everyone and, according to an Oriental writer, they enjoyed the singular felicity of being loved as

New York Grove Press 1960

Allen's original plan was to illustrate the historical antecedents of the contemporary poets with selections of recent work from such modernist writers as William Carlos Williams, Wallace Stevens, Ezra Pound, and Marianne Moore, followed by a few poems from second-generation poets The biographical notes at the end of the volume offered the poets what for many of them was their first opportunity for a national hearing. Ashbery, Creeley, Olson, and O'Hara dutifully recorded their education and writing careers. Some biographical entries were short and cryptic, while others noted the poets who had most influenced the particular writer. Gregory Corso, in two pages, told the harrowing tale of his childhood in foster homes and prisons, and of the impact of his subsequently meeting Allen Ginsberg. In

Before beginning this lecture you may want to

This final lecture will overturn that notion. In recent years, an increasing number of women have responded to him, and American poets of different skin tones, too, have turned to Whitman for guidance. Langston Hughes and his Harlem Renaissance contemporaries were only the beginning of a long line of African-American responses to Whitman. In addition, Native American and Asian-American writers have turned to Whitman for his democratic message and sympathy for an outsider stance. Whitman's dream of speaking for America has been realized. He is the voice not only of mainstream culture, but of the outsider as well. Whitman is America at last.

New York Farrar Straus Giroux 1969

Death is a central theme in The Dream Songs. The whole of book IV, Songs 78-91, is imagined by Henry as a series of posthumous lyrics written after his death, and elsewhere Henry thinks about suicide, and envies those who have died. He is surrounded by death through the loss of fellow poets, some of whom were close friends, while others shared more generally Henry's serious interest in writing, but all through their deaths contribute further to Henry's sense of isolation and exile. Among the many writers whose deaths he recalls are Ernest Hemingway, Sylvia Plath, William Carlos Williams, Theodore Roethke, and R. P. Blackmur - Hemingway and Plath being suicides. But among writers the greatest losses for Henry are the deaths of Randall Jarrell and Delmore Schwartz - particularly the latter. Berryman's friendship with Schwartz began in 1938-9 and lasted until Schwartz's lonely death in a run-down New York City hotel in July 1966. In Songs 146-58 Henry records his sorrow at the...

Indianapolis Bobbs Merrill 1969

Amiri Baraka's poems from the late 1950s and early 1960s came out of his association with the multi-racial, bohemian avant-garde centered upon New York's Greenwich Village. But in a change that Baraka has identified as culminating with the assassination of black leader Malcolm X in 1965, he moved to Harlem, in uptown Manhattan, and subsequently to his hometown of Newark. With this move his writing focused upon his desire to separate himself from what he came to see as a bohemian culture that was self-indulgent and apolitical, to root his writing in his own black experience and the suffering of the black community, and to advocate radical measures to alleviate that suffering. This move towards Black Nationalism, which led in 1967 to his discarding the name LeRoi Jones and taking up his Muslim name, is traced in Black Magic, his third book of poems. These poems, from a figure who had become well known in 1964 for his Obie Award-winning play Dutchman, made Baraka a major influence upon a...

Silliman Ron 1946 Ron Silliman a

Prolific writer of poetry and criticism since the early 1970s, was one of the founding members of the San Francisco-based language poets. As a Language writer, Silliman's poetry resists what fellow Language writer Charles bernstein calls official verse culture (6) and instead is in the tradition of 20th-century American avant-garde poetry.

The New American Poetry and the postmodern avantgarde

The decisive literary event of 1960 was the publication of an anthology entitled The New American Poetry. Published by Grove Press and edited by Donald Allen, the anthology would for the first time bring together many of the innovative young writers who were to constitute the next significant generation of avant-garde poetry. The New American Poetry was the most important anthology ofAmerican poetry to be published in the second half of the twentieth century. The poets included varied considerably in their backgrounds, styles, and attitudes, but they were alike in their experimental focus and in their rejection of the kind of academic verse represented by the New Criticism. Allen's collection was highly unusual among mid-century anthologies the poets whom he identified as our avant-garde, the true con-tinuers ofthe modern movement in American poetry were not only young (few ofthem were over forty and several were still in their twenties) but also relatively unpublished by the...

Selected Bibliography

Redeeming Eve Women Writers of the English Renaissance. Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Press, 1987. A Biographical Dictionary of English Women Writers 1580-1720. Edited by Maureen Bell, George Parfitt, and Simon Shepherd. New York Harvester Wheat-sheaf, 1990. Ferguson, Moira. First Feminists British Women Writers 1578 1799. Bloomington University of Indiana Press, 1985. Krontiris, Tina. Oppositional Voices Women as Writers and Translators of Literature in the English Renaissance. London Routledge, 1992. Shattock, Joanne. The Oxford Guide to British Women Writers. New York Oxford University Press, 1993. Varney, Andrew. Eighteenth-Century Writers in Their World A Mighty Maze. New York St. Martins Press, 1999. Ward, Thomas Humphry. The English Poets Selections with Critical Introductions by Various Writers and a General Introduction by Matthew Arnold. Vol. 2. New York Macmillan, 1912.

Stein Gertrude 18741946 Gertrude

Stein's radical language experiments and central involvement in the Paris art world from the early 1900s to her death have made her work and life famous. Much of her writing remained unpublished in her lifetime, and she never received any awards, but writers, musicians, painters, filmmakers, and dancers have all found her work inspiring. Stein's favorite subject was the human experience of thinking, feeling, and doing, especially how they happen simultaneously her favorite objects were America and family or power structures. After the 1950s, when the range of her work became better known, such poets as John ashbery and Lyn hejinian quickly recognized Steins importance. As for Steins own influences, she read Shakespeare, and novelists from the 18th and 19th centuries Samuel Richardson and Laurence Sterne, George Eliot and Henry James. The contemporaries who helped shape her writing were theorists in psychology and science including William James and Alfred North Whitehead and painters,...

The Escape From Banality

As I dealt in the last chapter with the pull of tradition, I turn in this one to the equivocal relation between the poet's language and the everyday language of his day. The two meanings of'creative' I shall deal with, therefore, arc concerned with only the second of the two kinds of banality which were the subject of the last section. A writer may be said to use language creatively if he makes original use of the established possibilities of the language and 6 if he actually goes beyond those possibilities, that is, if he creates new communicative possibilities which are not already in the language. Linguistic creativity in either of these senses may be paraphrased by 'inventiveness' or 'originality'. It is characteristic of all registers which have liberal tendencies, and supremely, of poetic language.

Descriptive Rhetoric

There is danger of train-spotting whenever anyone tries, as I do in this book, to deal with the general properties of poetic language, without particular attention to a given text, a given writer, or a given period. With such a programme, one cannot help (except by avoiding illustrations altogether) quoting short passages, lifted from their contexts, simply as instances of this or that stylistic feature. The corrective to this use of labelled specimens lies in the opposite approach, whereby a student considers a characteristic of language only within the context of the poem to which it belongs, as a contribution to its total communicative effect. This is the method of'practical criticism'. 2. The creative writer, and more particularly the poet, enjoys a unique freedom, amongst users of the language, to range over all its communicative resources, without respect to the social or historical contexts to which they belong. This means, amongst other things, that the poet can draw on the...

Linguistic Convention In Poetry

It is not surprising that archaism, the survival of the language of the past into the language of the present, is a feature of these time-defying roles of language. We have already noticed it in the hereinafter of legal English and the thou forms of religious English. The archaic ingredient of poetic expression was noted long ago by Aristotle, and has persisted through much of the history of English poetry. There is a difference between the occurrence of archaism in literature and its occurrence elsewhere, in that literary archaism is often inspired by the wish to follow the model of a particular writer or school of writers of the past. Nevertheless in the period 1600-1900 there vaguely existed what could be called a 'standard archaic usage' for English poetry, not based on the style of any one writer.6 It is true that the individual influences of Spenser and Milton played a leading part in the establishment of this traditional pattern of usage, but later poets modified it, and the...

Strickland Stephanie 1942

Like many writers working in hypertext, Strickland explores the larger implications of the form. In To Be Here as Stone Is (1999), she makes a case for the relativity and provisionality of knowledge best represented in hypertext as a guiding principle of the universe Objects are answers, she writes, though the natural tendency of the cosmos is toward change. Anything that appears permanent such as extinguished starlight is an illusion, though we seek these isolated bits of permanence out of our persistent reverence for error. This is the central tension of much of Strickland's work Along similar lines, Strickland examines the hyper-textual reading experience in Errand upon Which We Came (2001), written in collaboration with influential hypertext writer M. D. Coverley. on the first page, Strickland invites her readers to skip any parts of the poem he or she wants, adding, of course, it can be read straight through, but this is not a better reading, not a better life. Images of frogs...

On The Death Of Waller Aphra

The poem contains nothing remarkable, serving as an excellent example of the traditional panegyric form. The first line calls upon the departed, while the second suggests through a question to the deceased that the writer of the poem is unworthy by comparison, a trope often used in praise poetry How to thy sacred memory shall I bring, Worthy thy fame, a grateful offering Behn then compares her toils of sickness to the illness that overcame Waller, declaring every soft and every tender strain Is ruffled and ill-natured grown with pain. As her muse revives at the mention of Behn continues with the classical allusion to immortality gained by writers through their words, Waller's expressions described as wit sublime with judgment fine and strong. The name Sacharissa in line 20, Soft as thy notes to Sacharissa sung, refers to Lady Dorothy Sidney, Waller's love in the 1630s and the subject of many of his lyrics. Behn then compares her own writing to decaying flowers, contrasting it with...

Epistle To Miss Blount Alexander

And all the Writer lives in ev'ry Line His easie Art may happy Nature seem, Trifles themselves are Elegant in him. While he writes ostensibly of Voiture, Pope references himself by extension. He expresses the opinion that excellent writers make their efforts appear slight, as if natural. However, the smallest matters, trifles, they may transform into the elegant simply through the power of the word. Pope continues through line 20 bemoaning the loss of Voiture, describing how his absence will affect his admirers. Their hearts will heave In the next section, Pope adopts a voice of morality, noting that mere mortals deserve the strict life of A long, exact, and serious Comedy, in which each scene will teach a lesson. This sentiment remains fitting to the 18th century, which believed in female propriety and in woman's position as a moral authority. The speaker does allow that each scene might both Please and Preach, following Sir Phillip Sidney's edict, and that of the classics, that...

Epigram On Milton John Dryden

One of the best ways to honor a poet was in comparison to classical writers. As Milton did, Dryden favored the classics as models, learning Latin and Greek and in the 1690s engaging in accomplished translation of Persius, Juvenal, and Virgil. In his epigram, Milton is the third poet, while the first is Homer and the second Virgil. Dryden's use of repetition of the term three allows emphasis on the number of poets as well as calling attention to the fact that they spanned different eras, thus suggesting a continuum in which Milton occupied the most recent position. He elevates Milton by placing him in such lofty company and does the same for his own country by placing it in a series with Greece, home to the golden age of poetry, and Italy, home to the Continental Renaissance.

Fraser Kathleen 1935 Kathleen

Fraser has been an important voice in the rich tradition of women writers within the avant-garde. Her own poetry often addresses issues of influence and location. While Sylvia PLATH was an early role model, Fraser also became attracted to the linguistic attention of Barbara GUEST's compositions and the precision and silence in the work of Lorine niedecker, Jack spicer, and George oppen. While Fraser's work first reflected the accessible, self-expressive lyric poetry of the black mountain and new YORK schools, she began investigating how a more complex, specifically female sense of time and interiority might be articulated. She used the word gestate to define a poetic form of unnumbered discrete phrases, unfolding and proliferating as rapidly or as slowly as one's perceptions do (Translating 44). Born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Fraser graduated from Occidental College in California and moved to New York City. There she attended workshops directed by Stanley kunitz, Robert lowell, and Kenneth...

Sonnet On Ticho Brahe A James

The sonnet sequence is a very significant poetic feature for several reasons. First, as some scholars and critics argue, poets used their sonnets for political or monetary reasons. For example, there is the argument that Shakespeare's poems portray his relationship with his patron Henry Wriothesley, earl of Southampton, and during this time writers commonly sought the patronage of those who could support them financially.

Denise Levertov 19231997

Levertov was educated mostly at home. Her first published poem, Listening to Distant Guns, somewhat similar in tone to the poems of Hardy, appeared in 1940, and her first book, The Double Image, in 1946. In 1947 she married American writer Mitchell Goodman, who would go on to be a major anti-war activist in the 1960s. In France and Italy in the next few years Levertov began reading Williams and Wallace Stevens, and in 1951, at the instigation of Creeley, who had known Goodman at Harvard, she began a correspondence with Williams. Kenneth Rexroth included six of her poems in his anthology The New British Poets (1949), a volume designed to illustrate the new British Romanticism (with Dylan Thomas as its major figure) that was reacting against the work of Auden and the poets of the 1930s. Levertov's public role grew in the 1960s too. In 1961 and again from 1963 to 1965 she was poetry editor of The Nation, and she held a series of teaching and writer-in-residence positions which included...

Daniel Defoe 16601731

The son of a butcher, Defoe was trained for the Presbyterian ministry but instead established himself as a merchant in his early twenties. Declaring bankruptcy in 1692, Defoe was never able to completely free himself of creditors the rest of his life. He was imprisoned for his 1702 satire, The Shortest Way With Dissenters, and was bailed out by a political friend. Defoe, considered by some the father of modern journalism, published, edited, and wrote for some 26 periodicals during his lifetime. Not until his later life did he take to writing novels, his Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1719) being published not as a novel but an alleged memoir of a shipwrecked man. Moll Flanders (1722) and A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) cemented his reputation as a quasi-historical writer with a penchant for physical details.

Poetic Originality and the Whig Sublime

As I have argued, many Whig writers were convinced that the Revolution of 1688 marked a decisive moment in the establishment of modern political liberty. Not only did they believe that it would produce a rebirth of native literary culture, they also claimed that the Revolution demanded literary modes that would reflect its radical implications. The influential literary critic John Dennis argued for the need for new poetic forms to free English literature from the cultural hegemony of the pagan ancients. He believed that the future of contemporary poetry lay in the Christian sublime. In his critical essay The Grounds of Criticism in Poetry (1704) he argued that, by developing a tradition of religious verse, modern writers could surpass the triumphs and the effects of classical literature. For Dennis and other Whig writers such as Joseph Addison and Richard Blackmore, Milton's Paradise Lost provided an example of just the sort of new freedoms to which poets and critics aspired. Milton's...

Written For My Son And Spoken By Him At His First Putting On Breeches Mary Barber 1731 Mary

This extraordinary output made Wroth the most published woman of her day. Although she had spent a good deal of time at the Jacobean court and her writing occasionally reflected some influence by John Donne, most of Wroth's work remains remarkable for its freedom from conventions of her day. Rather it echoed the times of the Elizabethan writers, including her uncle. Josephine A. Roberts published much of Wroth's work in a modern edition, and other feminist critics have assured this amazing woman's place in the history of English poetry.

Lehman David 1948 A New Yorker

Levertov, originally spelled Levertoff, was born in Ilford, Essex, England. She was the daughter of a Russian Jew who converted to become an Anglican priest. Raised in a bookish home, she was educated privately. Her mother read 19th-century novels and poetry to her, and her father provided her with a religious education. Levertov's desire to become a poet came early. At age 12 she sent T. S. eliot several of her poems, and she received from a him a two-page letter of encouragement. During World War II she was a nurse in London, and soon afterward she married the American writer Mitchell Goodman and had a son. Goodman introduced her to Creeley, and she soon came to know Olson, Duncan, and Williams. In 1948 she immigrated to the United States, and by 1955, when she became a U.S. citizen, her poetic style had become Americanized. She served as the poetry editor for the Nation (1961,1963-65) and Mother Jones (1975-78), and she also taught creative writing at, among other schools, Drew...

Christs Victory In Heaven Giles

Fletcher (1610) One of the best of the 17th-century religious poets, Giles Fletcher produced poetry mostly free of didacticism, despite his membership in the Spenserian school. With nondramatic verse modeled after that of Edmund Spenser of The Fairie Queene (1590, 1596) fame, the Spenserians proved serious writers intent on wise subjects, which often caused their work to dissolve into a stilted preachiness. Fletch

The Spleen Anne Finch Close Reading Youtube

SONS OF BEN The label Sons of Ben referring to students of the work of Ben Jonson is often applied incorrectly. Those poets who worked at the beginning of the 17th century, including Thomas Carew, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and some minor writers, are more properly labeled the Tribe of Ben. Playwrights specifically affected by Jonson's writing, including Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Richard Brome, Nathan Field, Philip Massinger, and James Shirley, are more correctly considered members of the Sons of Ben.

Oliver Goldsmith The Deserted Village and George Crabbe

Towards the end of Oliver Goldsmith's career, and at the very start of George Crabbe's, both men launched critiques on the dire effects of England's expanding economy on the rural poor. They shared the view that the economic growth that helped London flourish from the Restoration through the eighteenth century had sapped rural villages of resources and widened the gap between rich and poor. Both writers came from poor families, and both spent their youth in rural areas Goldsmith in Lissoy, Ireland, and Crabbe in Aldeburgh, Suffolk before seeking their fortunes in London. Both writers, too, brought conventions of Augustan poetry to bear on their subject, not only heroic couplets but a whole tradition of pastorals, georgics, and anti-pastorals. Yet for all their similarities, any discussion of The Deserted Village (1770) and The Village (1783) inevitably begins with the contrast between the sentimentalism of Goldsmith's poem and the realism of Crabbe's. For even though both poems...

Herman Melville 181991

Melville was born into an impoverished family and quit school at age fifteen. He signed up as a cabin boy on a ship bound for Liverpool and later did eighteen months on a worldwide whaling voyage. He was captured by cannibals on the Marquesas Islands, but was well-treated by them and later rescued. His early novels Typee (1846) and Omoo (1847) reflect these adventures in the South Seas. Melville's career was soon established and he became a popular figure in New York and abroad. He married Elizabeth Shaw in 1847 and they moved next-door to writer Nathaniel Hawthorne in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1850. The next year he published Moby Dick, his greatest masterpiece, though it was not well-received at the time. His later years were sunk in debt, forcing him to accept a job as a customs inspector in 1866. He died a forgotten writer, and it wasn't until the 1920s that his literary reputation was reestablished.

Dancers and mischiefmakers

50 Augustin, De civitate Dei 15. 23, followed by Isid. Etym. 8. 103 Hincmar of Rheims, Patr. Lat. lxxxii. 326 Grimm (1883-8), 481 n. 2. A thirteenth-century writer, Thomas of Chantimpre, says that groves were consecrated to the Dusii by Prussians among other pagans Mannhardt (1936), 48.

Guide to Further Reading

Galvin, Queer Poetics Five Modernist Women Writers (Westport, CT, 1999). The poets discussed include Amy Lowell, Mina Loy, and H.D. Cary Nelson, Repression and Recovery Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 (Madison, WI, 1989). An important study which raises issues of canon formation and the writing of literary history, and argues for the reassessment of a number of neglected writers. Michael North, The Dialect of Modernism Race, Language and Twentieth-Century Literature (New York, 1994). Examines the complexities of the use of dialect among white and black modernist writers, especially Pound, Eliot,Williams, McKay, and Toomer.

Language Poetry and the postmodern avantgarde

While the idea ofpoetry as language experiment can be traced as far back as Whitman, the evolution ofAmerican poetry from Whitman to the modernists to the postmodern Language writers involves a gradually increasing attention to the potential of poetry as a medium for the exploration of language itself. Like their predecessors in the New American Poetry movements of the 1950s and 1960s, the Language Poets of the 1980s and 1990s were strongly committed to the idea of poetry as an agent of social and political critique. But whereas the New American poets tended to express their critique of contemporary society through direct statements of anger, outrage, or disgust, the Language writers were more interested in using poetry to examine the ways in which language operates within a range of social, cultural, and literary discourses. The difference between the New American Poets and the Language writers is in part generational. The Beats and other postwar poets reached their poetic maturity...

Nye Naomi Shihab 1952 Naomi

Has spent her adult life in San Antonio. Nye has worked as a journalist and has taught at the University of Texas, Austin. Her poetry has been featured on National Public Radio's The Writer's Almanac and A Prairie Home Companion, and on PBS The Language of Life and The United States of Poetry. Nye's many honors include fellowships from the Library of Congress (2000) and the Lannan Foundation (2002). She won the National Poetry Series prize for Hugging the Jukebox (1982) and was a National Book Award finalist (2002) for 19 Varieties of Gazelle.

The case of Umari Khayyam

During his lifetime, 'Umar-i Khayyam (1048-1131) was a celebrated scholar, not only in philosophy and the sciences but also in theology. The only writings attributable with certainty to him are in Arabic on the subjects of mathematics, astronomy and metaphysics. All that we know about 'Umar's life points to a more or less normal existence as a distinguished medieval scholar, who found patrons among the rulers and other influential men of his days. The earliest reference to him as a poet occurs in 'Imad ad-Din Isfahanl's Kharidat al-qasr, an anthology of Arabic poetry, and some other Arabic writers of the late twelfth century who cite a few short poems of his. That Khayyam, like any other cultured person, would have written Arabic poetry occasionally, is not unusual, and it is even quite possible that at times he may have improvised some Persian quatrains. However, considering The earliest references by mystics to Khayyam, however, speak a different language. Among the very first...

The masnavfs of Attar

There is, however, a problem of another kind facing the student of 'Attar's works. If we were to believe the evidence of the attributions occurring in most manuscripts, 'Attar would have been an exceptionally prolific writer of didactical masnavls. The complete list comprises about twenty titles. Serious doubts about the authenticity of several of these works were voiced for the first time by the Persian scholar Sa'ld Naflsl in 1941. He was able to trace a number of them to another poet who also names himself 'Attar, but actually lived in the second of the fifteenth century, that is two-and-a-half centuries later than Farld ad-Din, the pharmacist of Nishapur. Moreover, this other 'Attar reveals himself to be a fervent Shi'ite, whereas his older namesake left no doubt about his adherence to the tenets of the Sunni majority. The odd thing is that the fifteenth century author occasionally poses as if he really were Farld ad-Din 'Attar. We must therefore

Justice Donald 19252004 Donald

Justices poems are recognized for their supreme technical skill, impersonality of diction, accuracy of observation, and complexity of thought and sentiment. They offer a remarkable combination of exacting neo-classicism, which he learned during his one-year study with the iconoclastic critic Yvor winters at Stanford, and discreet postromantic lyricism, gained through years of study and teaching at the Iowa Writers' Workshop. Above all, Justices poems reveal an intense preoccupation with American landscape and people, which makes his work similar to that of Edwin Arlington robinson and Edgar Lee masters. At his best, Justice can be as discerning and profound as Robert frost. Justice was born and raised in Miami, Florida, although he spent a large part of his childhood visiting his grandparents in Georgia. He holds university degrees from Miami, North Carolina, and Iowa, where he received a Ph.D. in writing (at that time, the teaching faculty at Iowa included Robert lowell, John...

Archaic And Poetic Forms

Early Latin writers used older forms of words that subsequently underwent one or more changes. These were sometimes retained in poetic diction, partly to give a poet's language a certain remoteness from that of everyday speech, and partly because these forms were often metrically convenient. An example of the latter is the use of induper tor (general) in Juvenal Satires 10.138, which would have been replaced long before his time by the shorter form imper tor. The former, which scans as induper tor, can be used in a hexameter, whereas mp r t r, which has a short syllable between two long syllables, cannot. C The ending for the third-person plural, perfect indicative active -ere (instead of -erunt) is common, for example, fxdsere ( fulserunt, Catullus Carmina 8.3) and stupuere ( stupuerunt, Vergil Georgics 4.481). The shorter ending also occurs in some prose writers, such as Livy and Tacitus it appears to have been used in popular speech.

Nizamis Makhzan alasrar

The first poet who frankly acknowledged his indebtedness to Sana'l as a writer of a didactical masnavl was Ilyas ibn Yusuf NizamI of Ganja (1141-1209). He claimed that he could surpass his predecessor in a didactical poem, Makhzan al-asrar ('Treasury of Secrets'), a masnavl of moderate size (about 2,250 distichs) for which he chose another metre, the sari than Sana' had used. The rather trivial reason of this literary rivalry was that NizamI dedicated his work to another Bahramshah, a semi-independent ruler of Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia. In this case, however, the panegyric is of little importance. Just as in the Hadiqa, the discourse is a continuous sermon, but NizamI made a very clear plan for his poem. It is divided into twenty chapters, called maqalas, each with the same structure first, a theoretical part, then an exemplary story and finally a conclusion attached to the story. Each chapter closes with an apostrophe to the poet himself containing his pen name just as this is...

Owens Rochelle 1936 An award

Winning playwright as well as a poet, Rochelle Owens was one of the few women writers to achieve recognition within the male-dominated circles surrounding beat poetry. In the late 1950s, her idiosyncratic poems caught the attention of the poets George economou and Imamu Amiri baraka (then LeRoi Jones), whose enthusiasm led to the publication of her work in the influential underground magazines Trobar and Yugen. Soon afterward she received widespread notice for iconoclastic, Off-Off Broadway plays, such as Futz (1968) and Istanboul (1968). In its subversive themes and linguistic experimentation, her work anticipated the products of the language school that would emerge several decades later. Acknowledging the connection, the critic

Alliterative Revival ca 13501400

However, there are a number of difficulties with this thesis. While late medieval, alliterative poetry shares similarities with its Anglo-Saxon counterpart, it has a different meter and style. In addition, while Old English, Old Norse, and even Scandinavian words appear in 14th-century alliterative poetry, there are also a number of new, contemporary words used in the poems, many of which relate to clothing, hunting, siege warfare, and armor. Nor do we have evidence that Anglo-Saxon alliterative verse was preserved in oral culture. Even if it was, there are two aspects of Middle English alliterative poetry that make it unlikely that it was inspired by an oral tradition. First, the poems tend to be very bookish, often citing textual sources for their stories. This device could certainly be a convention (just as a scene of public recitation could be a convention, rather than reflective of actual practice), but many of these texts are translations of French or Latin sources. Second, some...

Imagist School Imagism Imag

Ism is a term associated with an eclectic group of English and American poets working between 1912 and 1917, among them some of the most important writers in English of the first half of the 20th century Ezra pound, Amy lowell, William Carlos williams, h. d. (Hilda Doolittle), D. H. Lawrence, Ford Madox Ford, and Richard Aldington. Never a wholly American movement, imagism nevertheless had a dramatic effect on several subsequent generations of self-consciously American writers and poets, perhaps most directly on those associated with the objectivist and black mountain schools of poetry. Even poets not formally associated with imagism, such as T. S. eliot, Conrad aiken, Marianne moore, and Wallace stevens, or overtly hostile to aspects of imagist aesthetics, such as Robert frost, benefited indirectly from the imagist school's formal experimentation and widespread critical success. efforts was the first of a series of three collections of verse, each entitled Some Imagist Poets, which...

Southwell Robert ca 15611595

Edmund Spenser was born around 1552 to a family of modest means and earned his education through academic prowess. In 1561, Spenser entered the Merchant Taylors' School as a poor scholar. There he came under the tutelage of Richard Mulcaster, a noted humanist scholar and writer, who emphasized equally the classtical tradition and studies in the vernacular. Spenser continued his education in 1569 by entering

O Taste And See Denise Levertov

(1964) The title poem in Denise levertovs 1964 collection of poetry, O Taste and See is a strong statement of her poetics. The world is not with us enough, she begins, and her opening lines do more than just allude to William Wordsworth's sonnet ( The World Is Too Much with Us 1807 ) they contradict it and in doing so signal not only Levertov's movement away from the formalism of her poetic predecessors but also her rejection of the classification New romantic given to her when she was a young writer. The formalism and conventional style of earlier poets (including her younger self) were challenged by her evolving use of organic form and her

English Chaucerians This is the name

Given to a group of 15th-century English writers and associated texts written after Geoffrey Chaucer's death. These writings reflect Chaucerian form, content, tone, vocabulary, and style. A number of them even cite Chaucer directly, as both source and inspiration. This group includes John Lydgate, Thomas Hoccleve, Benedict Burgh (d. ca. 1483), George Ashby (d. 1537), Henry Bradshaw (d. 1513), George Ripley (15th century), Thomas Norton (1532-1584), and Osbern Boke-nam (1393-ca. 1447). The texts (and thus their anonymous authors) include the so-called chaucerian Apocrypha The Tale of Gamelyn, The Tale of Beryn (The Second Merchant's Tale), La Belle Dame sans Merci, The Cuckoo and the Nightingale, The Assembly of Ladies, The Flower and Leaf, and The Court of Love. These last group of texts include a number of dream visions. Some scholars also consider several texts within the Piers Plowman tradition to be the work of English Chauceri-ans, and originally a number of those works were...

The Waking Theodore Roethke

WAKOSKI, DIANE (1937- ) Diane Wakoski's large body of work is notable for its narrative and digressionary style and its consistent use of her personal history and mythology to explore abstract themes, among them the pursuit of beauty and identity, loss, betrayal, and the world's dualities. Her influences include writers associated with the SAN francisco renaissance as well as Wallace stevens. Wakoski was born in Whittier, California, and began writing poetry at the age of seven. She published her first of more than 40 volumes, Coins and Coffins, in 1962. Her many honors include the Bread Loaf Writers' Conference Robert Frost Fellowship (1966) and the William Carlos WILLIAMS Prize (1989) for her selected poems, Emerald Ice (1988). She has taught at a number of schools, principally at Michigan State University.

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening 479

Cornell University Press, 1977. Justice, Donald. The Free-Verse Line in Stevens. In Oblivion On Writers and Writing. Ashland, Ore. Story Line Press, 1998, pp. 13-38. Riddell, Joseph N. The Clairvoyant Eye The Poetry and Poetics of Wallace Stevens. Baton Rouge Lousiana State University Press, 1965. Spicer, Jack. The House That Jack Built The Collected Lectures of Jack Spicer, edited by Peter Gizzi. Hanover, N.H. Wes-leyan University Press, 1998. Stevens, Wallace. Imagination as Value. In The Necessary Angel Essays on Reality and the Imagination. New York Vintage Books, 1951. Vendler, Helen. Wallace Stevens Words Chosen out of Desire. Knoxville University of Tennessee Press, 1984. Ruth Perkins Stone was born in Roanoke, Virginia, into a family of writers, painters, and musicians. Stone met her husband, the poet and novelist Walter Stone, while they were students at the University of Illinois. Walter attended graduate school at Harvard, while Ruth sat in on classes and was a...

Bukowski Charles 19201994

Much of Bukowski's poetry concerned the raucous exploits of the hardboiled Henry Chinaski, Bukowski's persona, and his greatest literary achievement. Chinaski is a hard-drinking writer, working-class gambler, and womanizer. While Chinaski's exploits seem real, his adventures were embellished by Bukowski to

Mexico City Blues Jack Kerouac

(1959) Jack kerouac's personal note on the title page of Mexico City Blues declares his wish to be considered a jazz poet, and the poems 242 choruses are invested with a musicality and improvisational quality that answer his wish. As with musical compositions, each movement of this book-length poem is independent, but the piece is more fully comprehensible and purposeful when taken in its entirety. The 242 choruses contain allusions to a vast range of experiences, from Kerouac's life I was the first crazy person I'd known ( 88th Chorus ), from literature F Scott Fitzgerald . . . Who burned his Wife Down ( 30th Chorus ), and from religion Nirvana Heaven ( 199th Chorus ). The poems private set of references is typical of the beat poets, writers associated with this radical shift in American poetry in the mid-twentieth century who often looked outward for experience, then immediately recorded personal responses to everything (unconcerned with social respectability). The more a reader...

Walcott Derek 1930 Derek

Walcott was born in Castries, the capital of the small Caribbean island of St. Lucia. His parents were Methodists in a largely Catholic environment, a fact that would later influence his understanding of the discipline of poetic craft. A prolific writer, Walcott published his first collection of poetry, 25 Poems, in 1948. After a period of study in New York, he returned to the Caribbean in 1959, where he lived in Trinidad for the next two decades, until he was appointed professor of creative writing at Boston University. In Boston he became acquainted with several American poets Robert lowell, Joseph brodsky, and the Irish poet Seamus Heaney. From the publication of In a Green Night (1962), Walcott has made his greatest

Careful Complaint By The Unfortunate Author A Isabella

Whitney concludes the poem by asking death to come quickly and asking the three Fates to end her life and her troubles. This last request may be exaggerated. Modern critics have noted that early modern women writers often used impending death as an excuse for publishing their work. Despite the stigma associated with publication, a woman who thought she was near death might be forgiven for writing (and publishing) instructions or ideas that she wanted to survive her. Thus, Whitney's use of Dido, who committed suicide, becomes all the more poignant. other critics have addressed the gendered implications of Whitney, comparing Dame Fortune to Aeneas.

Unbelievers and qalandars

About the motives behind the commonly practised piety, which was suspected of being no more than 'showing off piety' (riya) directed towards the world. In order to counter this serious danger for the mystical soul the reverse attitude was advocated, namely a behaviour that elicits criticism rather than admiration. The mystic should not only conceal his acts of devotion from the eyes of the people, but should actually behave in such a manner that he becomes the object of their disapproval. The intention of this was to purge love of insincerity. However, the school of blame itself did not remain above criticism. Hujvlrl (d. ca. 1075), an early Persian writer on the theory of Sufism, who admitted that blame had 'a great effect in making love sincere', also pointed out that it might end up in the very position which it tried to avoid

The ghazal in the history of literature

Since then, the fusion between the secular and the mystical in Persian ghazals has become such an essential characteristic that, in most instances, it is extremely difficult to make a proper distinction between the two. The decision whether a given poem should be called a Sufi ghazal or a profane love song very often does not depend so much on the poem itself, but on what we know about its writer, that is the answer to the question does the life of the poet provide us with clues of a mystical affiliation, or is the poet only known as a court poet To some extent the interpretative dilemmas just mentioned present themselves in the case of San 'l of Ghazna (d. 1131). There is enough historical evidence to qualify San 'l as a religious poet who was associated with preachers and mystics. He was also the earliest writer of mystical ghazals to leave a substantial collection. We find among them most of the themes and images which secular and mystical poets used alike, and which constituted...

Classical Tradition Allusions to and

During the Renaissance, there was a dramatic increase in the number and variety of classical allusions as more classical texts were rediscovered and studied and humanism became influential. Yet Renaissance English literature continued to focus on the Matters of Troy, Alexander, and Rome, and poets devoted a great deal of energy to translations of classical texts. However, Renaissance writers turned directly to the Greek and Latin sources instead of the Continental versions. into English, also incorporated chivalrous elements. Perhaps the earliest English adaptation of the Alexander story is in the Kyng Alisaunder romance of ca. 1330. The inspiration for this text was an Anglo-Norman romance. Typical of the romance genre, it elaborates upon the basic Alexander conquest story to incorporate marvels and elaborate battle sequences. Alexander makes a brief appearance in Ranulph Higdon's Poly-chronicon of 1362, which also includes more substantial Matter of Rome material, with references to...

Agincourt Carol The Anonymous

The first stanza serves as an introduction and summation of the 1415 campaign. Normandy was particularly important to Henry V (reigned 1413-22). Since the time of William the Conqueror, Normandy had been regarded as an important link to the Norman control of England, and now, with the balance of power reversed, it was England that was claiming the right to Norman soil. The carol writer is particularly keen to portray Henry's campaign as being one of chivalry and righteousness (l. 2) the king's position was moderate, and accounts show that he was particularly concerned with reining in the potentially abusive activities of his soldiers. Stanza 3 recalls the 150-mile trek of Henry's forces across northern France and the crossing of the Somme at an unguarded place amid the threat of attack from the French forces. The battle at Agincourt is commemorated in the fourth stanza. The carol writer, building on the images of corporate strength, celebrates Henry's warlike masculinity. The grace of...

Waldman Anne 1945 Anne Wald

Man has been a dynamic voice in American poetry for more than three decades. While she has most commonly been associated with the BEAT writers, she also has been an active member of the post-Beat New York poetry underground. In her practice she reaches back to the archaic nature of poetry. She says of her work I want my poetry to be a sustained experience, a voyage, a magnificent dream, something that would take you in myriad directions simultaneously, and you (1998) 117-130. Ricci, Claudia. Anne Waldman A Profile, Writers Online. Available on-line. URL www.albany.edu writers-inst olv1n2.html. Downloaded September 2003.

Barclay Alexander ca 14751552

Alexander Barclay is credited with being the first poet to write English pastorals. Little is known with certainty regarding Barclay's life, and many scholars turn to his writings to obtain information on his life and experiences. Some believe he was born in Scotland around 1475. He enjoyed a brief literary career, during which he produced poems, translations, and a French textbook. While many of his writings are translations, Barclay's writing style retained the character of the original work, encompassing his own ideas about English society. He was among the first writers to benefit from a wider circulation of his works as a result of the printing press. Consequently, Barclay had an important role in introducing Continental literature to the English public.

Burning Babe The Robert Southwell

(1595) The most famous poem by the English Roman Catholic writer Robert Southwell is a Christmas vision. The poet stands shivering outdoors on a snowy winter's night when, suddenly, his chest feels warm (ll. 1-4). He looks up in fear to see if he is near a fire and sees the vision of a baby burning. The baby is weeping, he sees, but the tears only kindle the fire. The babe explains that he is sad because people have not come to warm themselves in the flame (ll. 5-8). Then, in a series of metaphors, he says his breast is a furnace where sinful souls are heated like metals (ll. 9-12). This operation is for their good, he adds, for, once melted, the souls will be bathed in his blood. Having said this, he vanishes, but the words are sufficiently pointed to remind the poet that it is Christmas Day (ll. 13-16).

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